About Graham Edwards

I'm senior staff writer at Cinefex magazine. I also write novels. In a former life, I produced animated films for theme park rides and science centres. If you offer me a cold beer, I won't say no.

Spotlight – Sheena Duggal

To create cinematic illusions, you need conjurors. In this series of spotlight interviews, we ask movie magicians what makes them tick.

Having learned her craft during the very earliest days of digital compositing, and with a career as visual effects supervisor stretching back 20 years, Sheena Duggal has many stories to tell of her experiences in the industry – not to mention her work promoting diversity and inclusion at the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences. She lists her career highlights as including Mission Impossible, Contact, Prizewinner of Defiance Ohio, Matchstick Men, Spider-Man 3, Body of Lies, The Hunger Games, Iron Man 3, Thor: The Dark World, Agent Carter, Doctor Strange and Venom.

Sheena Duggal at the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences "VFX Convergence" event in 2013. Photo by Todd Wawrychuk / ©A.M.P.A.S.

Sheena Duggal at the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences “VFX Convergence” event in 2013. Photo by Todd Wawrychuk / ©A.M.P.A.S.

CINEFEX: How did you get started in the business, Sheena?

SHEENA DUGGAL: I grew up in England and attended art school for five years specializing in animation. When I left art college in 1985, I passed on a traditional animation job to work in London on high-resolution computer design work for musicians and photographers. It was there that I was first contacted to work on the feature film Super Mario Brothers.

I do have some great memories from my life before features. I worked on Elton John’s singles, albums and tour brochures – Prince’s too – but my all-time favorite client session was the time I spent one-on-one with George Harrison designing the first Traveling Wilburys album cover. George had a demo cassette of the album, which I listened to on my Walkman while I worked. I didn’t realize at the time the gravitas with which I should have held this experience! I was in my early ‘20s and the music scene I was into was very different, so it sounded dated to me. I didn’t realize the band was actually Bob Dylan, Tom Petty, George Harrison, Roy Orbison and Jeff Lynn – that was still a secret. I listened politely, racking my brain about how to authentically say something positive – I know, that sounds crazy now! George asked my opinion of the album, and I recall saying I liked the song Tweeter and the Monkey Man. He’d written that one, so he was happy! I remember thinking to myself, “Wow, this is a Beatle!” But it was really hard to sustain that awe, because he was just a nice, down to earth, generous, likeable guy with amazing stories of his trips to India, who took me out for dinner and gave me money for my cab fare home when we worked late.

CINEFEX: How did Super Mario Brothers come into the picture?

SHEENA DUGGAL: Sorry, I digress! A friend of mine, Phillipe Panzini – who went on to win an Academy Sci-tech Award for his work on Flame software – had shown the film’s producers a VIP brochure where we’d composited athletes onto NASA images of the Earth for the 1992 Barcelona Olympics, and they hired me as a matte painter. I was living in London at the time, didn’t know a soul in Los Angeles, and I had never used Flame. Then again, nor had anyone else. How hard could it be?

CINEFEX: So how hard was it?

SHEENA DUGGAL: Well, it was all very bleeding edge. There was a group of us working on about 20 SGI workstations with VGX graphics, and no such thing as batch or background processing. You’d set up a comp with as many as 26 layers, document all your setups by hand so you could reproduce them, then wait for it to render. It did that in the foreground, so there was a lot of downtime. Gary Tregaskis, the architect of Flame, was there with us constantly writing new code to allow us to create the effects we needed, and the late Peter Webb – who was the only person who had actually used Flame before – graciously shared his knowledge with us.

After that, I moved to San Francisco to work for the amazing animation company Colossal Pictures, under Brad De Graf who was exploring motion capture characters with his real-time CG character Moxy – considered to be the first real-time cartoon broadcast live. Using Flame, I composited a Robocop theme park ride for Iwerks, and using an alpha version of Flint – which Discreet Logic wrote for me to run on an Indy – I worked on the award winning Coke Sun commercial with director Tony Stacchi. I briefly moved back to Los Angeles to be a compositor on Terminal Velocity, before heading to ILM in the mid ‘90s to work on a Tales from the Crypt episode directed by Bob Zemeckis. After working on films such as Village of the Damned, The Indian in the Cupboard, Congo, Jumanji, Mission Impossible and the Special Edition of Star Wars: A New Hope, I left ILM with a team of amazing artists and technologists lead by Ken Ralston to help found Sony Pictures Imageworks as creative director of the high speed compositing department.

I became a visual effects supervisor in 1998 on Patch Adams, continuing to run the HSC department and comp shots until it became impossible for me to do it all. I left Imageworks after 14 amazing years to work as an independent production-side visual effects supervisor on The Hunger Games, then spent four years working with Marvel. I’m currently visual effects supervisor on Venom with Paul Franklin.

CINEFEX: What aspect of your job makes you grin from ear to ear?

SHEENA DUGGAL: Meeting people who have been touched by the work we do in the film industry. It’s easy to forget how much the dazzling visuals that we create impact people we’ve never met. In creating fantastical stories, we allow our audience a moment of escapism from their real lives, or we hit an emotional tone that resonates within them.

I remember meeting someone who asked me for an example of a film I’d worked on. I mentioned Contact, because I was very proud of the work I’d done designing the beautiful, ethereal look of the beach sequence on Vega where Jodie Foster speaks with her dead father. She immediately teared up, and told me that for her it was an amazing moment in the film. She explained that her father had passed away, and that the scene had felt to her like a depiction of heaven, and had touched her deeply. I was surprised, but I’ve heard many people over the years express similar sentiments.

At the climax of “Contact,” astronomer Dr Ellie Arroway (Jodie Foster) finds herself on a surreal beach under a canopy of stars. Sony Pictures Imageworks combined bluescreen photography of Foster with multi-layered CG effects and an off-kilter background assembled by seaming together tiled segments of location plate photography, to create a full and versatile digital background. Image copyright © 1997 by Warner Brothers.

At the climax of “Contact,” astronomer Dr Ellie Arroway (Jodie Foster) finds herself on a surreal beach under a canopy of stars. Sony Pictures Imageworks combined bluescreen photography of Foster with multi-layered CG effects and an off-kilter background assembled by seaming together tiled segments of location plate photography, to create a full and versatile digital background. Image copyright © 1997 by Warner Brothers.

Along the same lines, when I was at Marvel, we did a one-shot short directed by Louis D’Esposito called Agent Carter. I was the visual effects supervisor and I also created the main on-end title design – which was so much fun! Bob Iger liked the short so much it spun off into a television show on ABC. We did two seasons and when the shows aired, together with the actors and show runners, we live tweeted with the fans. It was so incredibly rewarding to tweet with these young girls who found in Peggy Carter an empowered female character that they could look up to.

CINEFEX: And what makes you sob uncontrollably?

SHEENA DUGGAL: Being the only woman in the room in a craft role. The lack of ethnic diversity is also disheartening. Diversity issues have been brought to the forefront of our industry recently, and it really is a very big problem. As a woman, you just don’t get the same opportunities as men. Often you can’t even finish your sentence, because some people still find it difficult to listen to a woman in a technical role. I’ve discussed these issues with women and people of color in other disciplines of the film industry and it’s the same story across the board. Some sectors of the industry, like cinematography and composers and visual effects, are very far behind in terms of gender equality and diversity.

I don’t often speak about these issues publicly. I’d much rather work towards a better solution for the future and be an agent of change, which I aim to do as chair of the Academy visual effects branch Diversity and Inclusion Sub-Committee and as a member of the A2020 Committee, whose initiative is to have a substantial and lasting impact on the diversity and inclusion issues in all aspects of the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences. I’m excited by the initiatives we’re working towards to create real and positive change within all branches of our industry.

CINEFEX: What’s the most challenging task you’ve ever faced?

SHEENA DUGGAL: One of the most challenging and rewarding tasks – because those often go hand in hand – was sitting with Pietro Scala and Sir Ridley Scott cutting the car chase and helicopter sequence on Body of Lies. We’d shot the sequence in the Sahara Desert but ran out of time at the end of the schedule. No one really wanted to go into the Mojave Desert to shoot additional photography, so we solved it by using visual effects to Frankenstitch together plates we’d shot, adding a few CG shots to help with storytelling. It came out brilliantly.

CINEFEX: And what’s the weirdest task?

SHEENA DUGGAL: Well, I’ve supervised a few Adam Sandler films, so lots of weird tasks there! One in particular, on Fifty First Dates, was to make a walrus puke. On the day of the shoot, I was banned from set for safety because the walrus became amorous. I don’t think it gets weirder than that!

CINEFEX: What changes have you observed in your field over the years?

SHEENA DUGGAL: Oh, things have changed so much since I began working in visual effects. Back in the early 1990s, we didn’t think about it as a business. Everything we did was a challenge and every day we were pushing the forefront of technological development. Creating an effect we had never seen or done required everyone in the filmmaking process to take a huge leap of faith. It was really challenging, we worked long hours because we were devoted to our tasks, and it was always a thrill to see what we were able to pull off. We were fortunate to be working with filmmakers like Bob Zemeckis who pushed us to innovate and create their vision despite the magnitude of the task ahead of us. We formed bonds and shared our innovations and techniques. It was thoroughly enjoyable.

I don’t know the exact point at which visual effects became big business. We didn’t anticipate how rapidly the technology and hardware would advance, become cost-effective and precipitate a mature toolset. Tasks that would have taken complex setups to complete 25 years ago can now be done with the push of a button and rendered in no time at all. But still, for those of us who have been in this industry for any amount of time, the objective remains the same – to create, innovate and push the envelope.

Aside from the tools and technology, the way we make films has also changed a lot, with many films driven by schedule and release dates. Today, there’s an increased level of difficulty in managing the complexity and number of shots. You could say that the challenge of feature film visual effects has become resource management – can we do the work given the schedule and budget available?

This is why I believe visual effects producers are so integral to the visual effects process. In fact, I’m encouraging our industry to further include and recognize their contribution. We couldn’t succeed in our craft without their contribution, which is often creative actually. The success of a project relies on a successful partnership between visual effects supervisor and producer. I’ve been very fortunate to work with some great visual effects producers, and I was delighted to see a number of them admitted to the Academy visual effects branch in 2017. We didn’t admit any this year, but this is a great start and goes a long way towards acknowledging and recognizing their contribution.

Of course, another big change is that we have dispersed our industry around the world in pursuit of tax credits, displacing thriving visual effects communities and forcing so many visual effects companies out of business.

CINEFEX: And what changes would you like to see?

SHEENA DUGGAL: More diversity and inclusion, period.

CINEFEX: What advice would you give to someone starting out in the business?

SHEENA DUGGAL: If you’ve found what you love and it’s visual effects, there are four broad categories you can choose from – creative, technical, production management and facility management. Look on the big visual effects studio sites like ILM, DNEG, MPC, Framestore and the rest. Check out the job postings and careers pages. Understand what’s required and what you need to learn technically and artistically. Know what the positions are, what the titles mean, and how each contributes to a movie. Some software vendors offer students free non-commercial access to their products. Look in particular at Autodesk Maya, The Foundry Nuke and Side Effects Houdini.

CINEFEX: If you were to host a mini-festival of your three favorite effects movies, what would you put on the bill, and why?

SHEENA DUGGAL: Blade Runner – because every frame is a work of art. It’s emotionally moving on a number of levels, the beauty of it speaking to you as much as the story and characters do. For me, it’s visual storytelling using lighting and atmospherics in tandem with a spectacularly emotional color palette. It’s about the visual effects supporting the story so you can get lost in the world that Ridley created. It really stands the test of time – even today in VFX films you can see futuristic city builds riffing off that original Blade Runner production design.

I want to say Terminator 2: Judgment Day – because visually it blew my mind. It was the first time I thought, “Wow, it’s possible to photorealistically visualize anything you can imagine!” I also grew up watching the Ray Harryhausen films – the skeleton fight in Jason and the Argonauts was my previous gold standard because who doesn’t love a brilliant piece of stop-frame animation? But I’m going to have to say my second pick is The Abyss.

The alien creature in The Abyss is not only a beautiful design, it’s also haunting, melodramatic, and integral to the success of the storytelling. It looks great, and I love the scene with the sea water snake that mimics the faces of Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio and Ed Harris, whose superb acting really sells the believability of the visual effects. At the time, we’d really never seen anything quite like these effects before.

Contact – because it has a woman at the center of the story, I know it so intimately, and I’m proud that the work we did in 1996 still holds up today. It was a magical time with an incredible team of talented people. The standout for me is the beach sequence, which I put my heart and soul into designing, and the mirror shot that became something magical once we’d composited it. People still ask me how we did that today. The way we move the camera and employ visual effects to change the perspective of the viewer is brilliantly executed. It was a challenging show – the beach sequence was first time in film history that anyone had a shot a full 360-degree bluescreen and replaced it with a digital environment. And Jay Redd’s beautiful opening sequence, combined with the audio design, is still one of the best openings to any film – it sets the tone perfectly.

CINEFEX: What’s your favorite movie theater snack?

SHEENA DUGGAL: Dark chocolate with sea salt.

CINEFEX: Sheena, thanks for your time!

Spotlight – Nicholas Hurst

To create cinematic illusions, you need conjurors. In this series of spotlight interviews, we ask movie magicians what makes them tick.

A visual effects supervisor at Outpost VFX, Nicholas Hurst lists his filmography highlights as Three Seconds, Beauty and the Beast (2017), Guardians of the Galaxy Vol.2, The Martian, Avengers: Age of Ultron, The Dark Knight Rises and John Carter.

Nicholas Hurst

CINEFEX: Nicholas, how did you get started in the business?

NICHOLAS HURST: At an early age, I was never really motivated in school. Growing up in a tiny village in Wales – 15 houses max – I followed suit with what most other teenagers did in the late ‘90s, particularly in Wales, and left school at 16. I worked numerous jobs including shelf stacker, builder, car salesman, restaurant manager, painter and decorator – you name it, I did it.

Having those few years in various industries has actually been one of the main contributing factors to where I am today. Laying bricks in the cold months of winter or working 90-hour weeks to keep a restaurant afloat really does push you to make a choice – stick or twist, and at that age I decided to twist. I handed in my notice, gave myself a couple of months to search for my next step and went for it. Now, at this point I was starting from nothing. I had two GCSEs, grade A-C, so I knew it was going to be an uphill battle to get into a whole new career, but I knew I needed to kickstart my misfiring education.

I attended over 30 open days all over the country and 100 percent of them turned me away because I didn’t have the grades to get onto the courses I wanted to go on – until one college accepted me on a multimedia course. The college was geared towards ex-prison and ex-rehab, so at first I was completely put off, but after another couple of weeks of rejections it was time to buckle up and go for it. It turned out to be the best decision of my life.

The college definitely had its major quirks but I kept my head down and enjoyed every last minute of the course. Modelling, animation, film-making – I absorbed the lot, and when it came to making a decision on what to do next I jumped at the chance to do a visual effects course at university.

I’m sure most people would say their first break was on such-and-such a film, or being hired at a top studio, but I consider my first break to be acceptance onto that college course in Wales. It took me from a small village with barely any education to a 1st Class Honors degree and a career that I couldn’t be any more passionate about.

CINEFEX: What aspect of your job makes you grin from ear to ear?

NICHOLAS HURST: The majority of the projects I get involved with start from script breakdown for bidding, concept art, look development and lead through to tech recces to the shoot itself. Then, after the shoot and the edit is locked, we bring the work in and I supervise the post work all the way through to the final delivery. Taking a project from a script to the big screen makes me grin from ear to ear, for sure.

CINEFEX: And what makes you sob uncontrollably?

NICHOLAS HURST: Unrealistic timeframes!

CINEFEX: What’s the most challenging task you’ve ever faced?

NICHOLAS HURST: Early in my career, I was involved with a film called Afterdeath. 320 shots over a four-month period is fine when you have 20 artists, but when the budget doesn’t allow and there is only enough for one artist – myself – you have a big challenge on your hands. Tasks ranged all the way through tracking, CG, animation, effects and comp. I rented a desk in north London and got to work. Let’s just say there were a lot of late nights, but when it was over I was pleased with what I had accomplished.

I think having these challenges dotted through your career does help – tricky deadlines with a fast turnaround and a huge range of shots. It has a positive knock-on effect because it helps to build confidence for future projects, leading teams and working with a range of producers and directors.

CINEFEX: And what’s the weirdest task?

NICHOLAS HURST: Let’s just say there is a huge contrast between what your friends think your job consists of – meeting the stars, walking the red carpet – and the reality of sitting in a dark room painting six packs onto middle-aged men.

CINEFEX: What changes have you observed in your field over the years?

NICHOLAS HURST: One of the main changes that I have seen over the last few years has been the volume of work that is outsourced increasing year on year. With budgets becoming tighter all the time, outsourcing work has gone from a time saver to an absolute necessity in bringing a project in on budget. However, the knock-on effect of this is that paint work, roto and cleanup are all being completed elsewhere, and I can see junior roles becoming harder and harder to come by. We are in an interesting transitional stage in visual effects at the moment and I am just happy I jumped on board when I did.

CINEFEX: And what changes would you like to see?

NICHOLAS HURST: Budgets increasing for visual effects. It’s very sad to see the amount of post houses that have had to shut down due to substantial losses over the last few years.

CINEFEX: What advice would you give to someone starting out in the business?

NICHOLAS HURST: Firstly, if you want to clamber onto that first rung of the ladder and stay there, expect to be the first one clocking in and the last one clocking out. Hard work gets noticed and if you push yourself to be proactive it will pay off in spades. Secondly ‘don’t be a dick’ is a quote from one of my university lectures and amen to that. If you are not a collaborator and not willing to work with others, I can assure you that you will easily be missed off the contract extension list.

CINEFEX: If you were to host a mini-festival of your three favorite effects movies, what would you put on the bill, and why?

NICHOLAS HURST: I’ve chosen three that I’ve worked on because I’m so proud of them! Over my career, three films have definitely poked their heads above the rest.

Beauty and the Beast – solely because I was a key part in breathing new life into some of the marquee characters for the 2017 release.

Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 – it was a blast helping to bring the now much-loved character Baby Groot to the big screen.

Three Seconds – directed by Andrea Di Stefano, shot across the UK and America, due to be released this year. That’s all I can say for now, but I’m excited for it to be put in front of audiences soon.

CINEFEX: What’s your favorite movie theater snack?

NICHOLAS HURST: Well, I am vegetarian, so if theatres started to stock Tofurky hot dogs that would be at the top of my list. Until that time, popcorn salted and sweet is up there, for sure.

CINEFEX: Thanks for your time, Nicholas!

Spotlight – Andy Burrow

To create cinematic illusions, you need conjurors. In this series of spotlight interviews, we ask movie magicians what makes them tick.

Andy Burrow is a visual effects producer at Outpost VFX, and lists his career highlights as including Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, Maleficent and Guardians of the Galaxy.

Andy Burrow

CINEFEX: How did you get started in the business, Andy?

ANDY BURROW: I started in scanning and recording in 2001 at Framestore, and gravitated to visual effects when the industry dropped negative and went almost exclusively digital. I began working in visual effects at Lipsync in 2012 and haven’t looked back since.

CINEFEX: What aspect of your job makes you grin from ear to ear?

ANDY BURROW: Undoubtedly the people I work with at Outpost. I have so much fun on a daily basis with my colleagues. Even if we are in an incredibly stressful crunch time we manage to keep the spirits up, although these are pretty infrequent. Also, being 10 minutes away from the beach doesn’t hurt.

CINEFEX: And what makes you sob uncontrollably?

ANDY BURROW: Generally penalty shoot-outs in England soccer matches. But I felt a lot better after the Colombia game!

CINEFEX: What’s the most challenging task you’ve ever faced?

ANDY BURROW: The director of Maleficent was originally a matte painter, so as fast as we were creating the environments for the show he was annotating them and we’d almost have to start again from scratch.

CINEFEX: And what’s the weirdest task?

ANDY BURROW: It’s far too rude to mention here!

CINEFEX: What changes have you observed in your field over the years?

ANDY BURROW: Unfortunately, it’s tighter schedules for ever-decreasing budgets.

CINEFEX: And what changes would you like to see?

ANDY BURROW: That everyone in visual effects is treated fairly with regards to work-life balance, as in other industries. This is something that Outpost genuinely cares about – for the first time in a long time I really look forward to coming to work.

CINEFEX: What advice would you give to someone starting out in the business?

ANDY BURROW: Be prepared to work hard and you will reap the rewards. And make sure you go to the pub with the more senior artists – you’ll be surprised how much you learn.

CINEFEX: If you were to host a mini-festival of your three favorite effects movies, what would you put on the bill, and why?

ANDY BURROW: First up would be the original Clash of the Titans. As soon as I saw it, I knew I would love movies forever. I still think the stop motion can’t be bettered and it was just so magical to watch as a kid, pure escapism.

Second would be The Matrix, I’ll never forget seeing bullet-time and thinking, “What the **** is going on here?”

Lastly, Terminator 2: Judgment Day. I was blown away at the time as a teenager and the visual effects still hold up now.

CINEFEX: What’s your favorite movie theater snack?

ANDY BURROW: A hot dog smothered in ketchup and mustard, naturally.

CINEFEX: Andy, thanks for your time!

2018 Emmy Awards Nominations

70th Emmy Awards

The buildup to the 70th Emmy Awards began yesterday, when the Television Academy announced over 9,100 nominations in 122 categories. Television Academy chairman and chief executive officer Hayma Washington commented:

“The continued growth of the industry has provided opportunities for acclaimed new programs to emerge, while allowing last season’s break-through programs to thrive. In addition, 36 performers – ranging from new discoveries to revered international stars – have received their first-ever acting Emmy nomination across all categories of scripted programming. We are honored to recognize both television’s seasoned veterans and rising talents. This year’s nominations continue to represent increased diversity and inclusion in front of the camera. And, there is a wealth of new and returning programs that reflect so many of today’s critical issues.”

"Game of Thrones" received 22 nominations in the run-up to the 70th Emmy Awards, more than any other show.

“Game of Thrones” received 22 nominations in the run-up to the 70th Emmy Awards, more than any other show.

The nominations in the two categories for special visual effects honor not only well-established series like HBO’s multi-award-winning Game of Thrones – the most recognized show this year with 22 nominations in all – but also newer streaming shows such as Altered Carbon and Lost in Space. Streaming giant Netflix led the field overall, narrowly beating HBO’s 108 nominations with a grand total of 112.

Here’s a breakdown of the visual effects nominees, plus those for prosthetic makeup and fantasy/sci-fi costumes. There’s a long list of key supervisors and artists credited for each show – we urge you to visit the Emmy Awards website to get all the names, and to check out the nominations in all the other categories.

Outstanding Special Visual Effects

  • Netflix’s Altered Carbon (Out Of The Past)
    Senior visual effects supervisor Everett Burrell
  • HBO’s Game Of Thrones (Beyond The Wall)
    Lead visual effects supervisor Joe Bauer
  • Netflix’s Lost In Space (Danger, Will Robinson)
    Senior visual effects supervisor Jabbar Raisani
  • Netflix’s Stranger Things (Chapter Nine: The Gate)
    Senior visual effects supervisor Paul Graff
  • HBO’s Westworld (The Passenger)
    Visual effects supervisor  Jay Worth

Outstanding Special Visual Effects In A Supporting Role

  • TNT’s The Alienist (The Boy On The Bridge)
    Visual effects supervisor Kent Houston
  • Netflix’s The Crown (Misadventure)
    Visual effects supervisor Ben Turner
  • FOX’s Gotham (That’s Entertainment)
    Visual effects supervisor Thomas Joseph Mahoney
  • Hulu’s The Handmaid’s Tale (June)
    Visual effects supervisor Stephen Lebed
  • USA’s Robot (eps3.4_runtime-err0r.r00)
    Visual effects supervisor Ariel Altman

Outstanding Prosthetic Makeup For A Series, Limited Series, Movie Or Special

  • FX’s American Horror Story: Cult
    Department head makeup artist Eryn Krueger Mekash
  • FX’s The Assassination Of Gianni Versace: American Crime Story
    Department head makeup artist Eryn Krueger Mekash
  • HBO’s Game Of Thrones (The Dragon And The Wolf)
    Department head makeup artist Jane Walker
  • CBS’s Star Trek: Discovery (Will You Take My Hand?)
    Special makeup effects department head Glenn Hetrick
  • HBO’s Westworld (The Riddle Of The Sphinx)
    Department head makeup artist Justin Raleigh

Outstanding Fantasy/Sci-Fi Costumes

  • HBO’s Fahrenheit 451
    Costume designer Meghan Kasperlik
  • HBO’s Game Of Thrones (Beyond The Wall)
    Costume designer Michele Clapton
  • Hulu’s The Handmaid’s Tale (Seeds)
    Costume designer Ane Crabtree
  • Netflix’s A Series Of Unfortunate Events (The Vile Village: Part 1)
    Costume designer Cynthia Summers
  • HBO’s Westworld (Akane No Mai)
    Costume designer Sharen Davis

Voting for the final round begins August 13, and the 70th Emmy Awards will telecast live from the Microsoft Theater in Los Angeles on Monday, September 17. The Creative Arts Emmy Awards airs Saturday, September 15.

Making the Summer Grade

Cinefex 160 Banner

What do Solo: A Star Wars Story, Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, Ant-Man and the Wasp and Deadpool 2 have in common? Well, for a start, they’re all featured in our summer issue, Cinefex 160, out mid-August and available to preorder now.

The films have more in common than we realized, actually, as Blackmagic Design told us recently. Three of the four were graded by digital imaging technicians using the same DaVinci Resolve Studio software. Talking about his work on Deadpool 2, EFILM senior colorist Skip Kimball commented:

“The biggest challenge in balancing the look of Deadpool 2 was to seamlessly integrate a high volume of visual effects shots that came in from many different vendors. The footage was shot over many weeks at various stages and locations, so my aim was to make sure everything was kept fluid and cohesive. For example, the convoy scene is 10 minutes of action, but elements were shot on bluescreen and on location during different times of day. It took many external mattes combined with Power Windows, along with Resolve plugins like camera shake, blurs and many tricks to make it all come together.”

Deadpool (Ryan Reynolds) takes charge while Domino (Zazie Beetz) looks on. "Deadpool 2" photograph courtesy of Twentieth Century Fox.

Deadpool (Ryan Reynolds) takes charge while Domino (Zazie Beetz) looks on. “Deadpool 2” photograph courtesy of Twentieth Century Fox.

Kimball worked closely with director of photography Jonathan Sela to create the final grade, acknowledging the fact that while Deadpool frequently dips his mercenary toe into the world of the X-Men, the two franchises have very different looks.

“I’ve worked on several previous films with Jonathan,” said Kimball. “His work is so even and straightforward, and I’m able to get what he exposed on the screen fairly quickly, which is a testament to his craft. The look for Deadpool 2 has less contrast, is a bit softer, and is not as saturated, which all serves Jonathan’s vision.”

Commenting on his overall approach to the colorist’s craft, Kimball added:

“I basically start from scratch as I look at the footage, and color grade based on instinct. I try to start off with being able to show the cinematographer what they exposed, and from there we build on it. If I get stuck on a shot, I walk away from it, then come back. The scene is not done until you can play all the way through without stopping.”


Solo: A Star Wars Story benefited from postproduction work by senior colorist Joe Gawler at Harbor Picture Company, with equivalent work on Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom being handled by senior colorist Adam Glasman of Goldcrest.

Spotlight – Helen Newby

To create cinematic illusions, you need conjurors. In this series of spotlight interviews, we ask movie magicians what makes them tick.

Helen Newby is head of compositing at Cinesite. Helen lists her career highlights as The Shipping News, Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, Skyfall , The Man from U.N.C.L.E. and Mute.

Helen Newby

CINEFEX: How did you get started in the business, Helen?

HELEN NEWBY: Back in ’91, I was lucky enough to land a job at RSA Films as assistant to photographer and director Lester Bookbinder. I learned all sorts including attending the telecine and postproduction sessions. It led me to have a rethink and I went on to train on Domino, a film-in, film-out digital optical system. At the time, Mill Film Shepperton had a Domino system in place and a position opened – and that’s how it started. I remember grading and outputting the title sequence for Beautiful Creatures through Domino in 2000 and thinking it was magic.

CINEFEX: What aspect of your job makes you grin from ear to ear?

HELEN NEWBY: When a sequence is finaled, I like to think about the myriad parts that went into it – including the lucky accidents.

CINEFEX: And what makes you sob uncontrollably?

HELEN NEWBY: Running out of time.

CINEFEX: What’s the most challenging task you’ve ever faced?

HELEN NEWBY: V for Vendetta in 2005. It was my first show at Cinesite and I was tasked with compositing a shot previously started in Inferno. It was a lovely wide shot of Natalie Portman in the ‘Evey Reborn’ sequence. The client-side visual effects supervisor was due to fly home and was waiting for this one last shot – which added an interesting edge. On the plus side, I was bought flowers when it finalled.

CINEFEX: And what’s the weirdest task?

HELEN NEWBY: Three talking dog shows. Really.

CINEFEX: What changes have you observed in your field over the years?

HELEN NEWBY: From a compositing point of view, the way we used to work and make images was very different to now. We had no access to cameras or anything outside of the 3D scene, unless we popped into Maya. The idea of projecting onto a piece of geometry was not an option. Interestingly, greenscreens still seem to be a regular feature.

CINEFEX: And what changes would you like to see?

HELEN NEWBY: Alongside constant advancements in technology – whether it’s the way on-set data is gathered or how we process it – comes a faster pace to the whole process. I would like to see these advancements being used to the benefit of our industry, to allow us to find new and unexpected approaches and techniques, rather than them causing any detriment.

CINEFEX: What advice would you give to someone starting out in the business?

HELEN NEWBY: Be flexible – the industry is changing alongside technology. Be open to feedback – only one version can end up in the final film.

CINEFEX: If you were to host a mini-festival of your three favorite effects movies, what would you put on the bill, and why?

HELEN NEWBY: Solaris (1971) – technically it’s not an effects movie. Oh, but the opening 20 minutes … the set design …

Forbidden Planet – the matte paintings, the models, Dr Morbius and his ‘brain booster’ machine. And a serious Leslie Nielsen!

Ex Machina – I think maybe I love it for the same reasons I love Solaris. It has a slowness, an unrushed quality. The minimalism of it all. Oh, and that dance scene!

CINEFEX: What’s your favorite movie theater snack?

HELEN NEWBY: Popcorn, giant-size for stealth reasons.

CINEFEX: Helen, thanks for your time!

The Cinefex Interview – CelluloidNation

Left to right: Mike Brown, host of the CelluloidNation podcast, Jody Duncan, Cinefex editor-in-chief, Joe Fordham, Cinefex associate editor.

Left to right: Mike Brown, host of the CelluloidNation podcast; Jody Duncan, Cinefex editor-in-chief; Joe Fordham, Cinefex associate editor.

“Every time Cinefex comes out, it’s a little slice of history.”

So says Cinefex associate editor Joe Fordham, quoting one of the many kind things said to us by filmmakers through nearly 40 years of publishing.

You can hear more from Joe and Cinefex editor-in-chief Jody Duncan in this exclusive 90-minute interview with Mike Brown, host of the CelluloidNation podcast. Want to learn how Cinefex first started? The answers are here. Want to know how we go about writing a Cinefex article? Listen in and find out.

During the wide-ranging discussion, you’ll hear the stories behind some of Jody’s and Joe’s favorite – and not-so-favorite! – articles. Some of these are tales we’ve never told before. Hear how Jody ended up writing one of C-3PO’s lines in Star Wars: Attack of the Clones, or how Joe scooped an hour-long interview with a barefoot Peter Jackson in the editing suite of Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers.

Mike’s podcast has something for every fan of big-screen effects, old and new. So pour yourself a hot beverage, relax into your favorite armchair, and treat yourself an hour and a half in the company of the Cinefex editorial team.

Spotlight – Stephen Clee

To create cinematic illusions, you need conjurors. In this series of spotlight interviews, we ask movie magicians what makes them tick.

Stephen Clee

Stephen Clee is an animation supervisor and animator at Method Studios, and lists his career highlights as Okja, Thor: Ragnarok, and Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald.

CINEFEX: Stephen, how did you get started in the business?

STEPHEN CLEE: Way back in high school I wanted to be an architect – until I did some work experience at an engineering firm and nearly died of boredom. I loved the design aspect but hated how mundane most of the tasks were. My drafting and design teacher, who also taught the digital animation course at my school, saw that I had a passion for the creative part of the work and told me about Capilano University. I applied to their well-respected 2D animation program but was promptly rejected due to my – in hindsight – utterly terrible portfolio. I decided that I really wanted to pursue animation as a career, so I spent a year working in a restaurant while taking as many drawing courses as I could in my spare time to build a better portfolio. I was accepted the following year.

My first job was on Reader Rabbit, a Flash-animated children’s show for Studio B, now DHX. I worked in television for a few years at local studios Atomic and Bardel to get some experience under my belt and improve as an animator. In 2007, I went back to Capilano University to learn 3D and got a job working in videogames upon graduation. Visual effects had always interested me and offered the higher level of quality that I was striving for, so, two and a half years later, I quit my job at Capcom and took a three-month contract at Method Studios, then CIS. I’ve been there ever since. Working at Method has helped me grow as an animator and work on a myriad of different projects ranging from Avengers to Okja. Getting to work here has been my big break and taught me more than all my other jobs combined. I’ve been fortunate enough to find mentorship here and grow in my career as an animator, lead and supervisor.

CINEFEX: What aspect of your job makes you grin from ear to ear?

STEPHEN CLEE: So many things make me happy at work: taking a really challenging shot to completion; finding creative solutions with the animators for their shots; working with my colleagues to come up with better acting choices; figuring out better workflows with the team; being surprised in dailies by a fun performance choice an animator makes. And finishing the last shot on a show!

CINEFEX: And what makes you sob uncontrollably?

STEPHEN CLEE: Probably the most frustrating part of the job is when we get drastic edits to a sequence while under the gun to deliver. It can be tough for morale when things change that are out of our control, or shots are omitted when we’ve put a lot of work into them.

CINEFEX: What’s the most challenging task you’ve ever faced?

STEPHEN CLEE: Puppeteering Okja the superpig on set for five months … then getting back into the studio and realizing we had to animate to everything we shot. Our goal was to build a relationship between Mija and Okja, and getting that right took lots of interaction between our CG, our on-set ‘stuffie’ puppets, and the actors. Director Bong Joon-Ho was amazing in that he would give us nearly minute-long shots with a barely-moving camera in which to let our creature breathe. That offers you a lot of opportunity but also a ton of room to fail. He was open to our ideas and we were often able to make the creative choice over the easy one. We didn’t shy away from letting the actors push, hold, ride, or sleep on Okja and because of that I hope you believe their bond to be real. It was by far the most rewarding show of my career, and the most difficult.

CINEFEX: And what’s the weirdest task?

STEPHEN CLEE: Being on set at two in the morning puppeteering the head of a six-ton superpig with my arm in a foam-filled sock representing a tongue sticking out of its mouth ‘licking’ the face of a 12-year-old actress – Ahn Seo-Hyun – who was playing a crying emotional scene in front of a crew of middle-aged men operating a Technocrane with incredulous looks on their faces. Yeah, that’s probably the weirdest.

Watch Stephen Clee puppeteering superpig stuffies in this Netflix featurette on the visual effects of Okja:

CINEFEX: What changes have you observed in your field over the years?

STEPHEN CLEE: The quality of the work overall has gotten to be so high. It’s amazing to watch television shows like Game of Thrones and see sequences like the convoy attack that Image Engine did last year, and be utterly convinced that dragons exist and are out there burning up the countryside. I also love that recent movies like Blade Runner: 2049, Mad Max: Fury Road, and Dunkirk are emphasizing blending special and visual effects together to make things feel even more real. I think utilizing more practical effects and achieving things in-camera really helps push the quality bar and lets visual effects focus on what we’re good at.

CINEFEX: And what changes would you like to see?

STEPHEN CLEE: I’d like to see an increase in the speed of our rigs and rendering to the point that we could get real-time feedback consistently at a high level of detail. My dream is to get myself and my animators focusing on the creative, not burdened by the limits of our technology. I’ve seen a lot of these types of workflows being developed and would love to be a part of working with them.

CINEFEX: What advice would you give to someone starting out in the business?

STEPHEN CLEE: Start small and don’t be discouraged if you fail. I think working in television for a few years helps imbue a sense of confidence in your skills because of the quick turnaround. It teaches speed, accountability, great posing and fundamentals in a short amount of time. Visual effects can be a tough nut to crack for some animators jumping in right out of school as the level of detail and quality can be intimidating and the timelines quite demanding for someone lacking experience. Becoming a good animator takes a long time. I’ve been doing this for over 15 years and still learn from my colleagues on a near-daily basis.

CINEFEX: If you were to host a mini-festival of your three favorite effects movies, what would you put on the bill, and why?

STEPHEN CLEE: Jurassic Park – for a kid born in the early ‘80s, this landed at the perfect time in my life to inspire and awe. The introduction to seeing the T-rex for the first time in the movie theatre was terrifying and opened up a whole new idea of what I could do with my life.

The Incredibles – Pixar … Brad Bird … superheroes … I mean, what else do you want? The animation in this film is still some of my favorite work out of Pixar. The acting choices and the simple, graphic style of the film really hold up.

Mad Max: Fury Road – talk about spectacle and the marrying of special and visual effects in a beautiful way. The way the story was told defied all normal convention and was so refreshing. I love how insane some of the design choices were – any film that thinks a man strapped to a truck playing guitar is a good idea is all right in my books.

CINEFEX: What’s your favorite movie theater snack?

STEPHEN CLEE: The theater down the street from me serves booze. So, beer and Sour Patch Kids.

CINEFEX: Thanks for your time, Stephen!

Spotlight – Sandra Balej

To create cinematic illusions, you need conjurors. In this series of spotlight interviews, we ask movie magicians what makes them tick.

Sandra BalejSandra Balej is a digital effects supervisor at Method Studios, and lists her filmography highlights as Doctor Strange, Thor: Ragnarok and Ant-Man and the Wasp.

CINEFEX: How did you get started in the business, Sandra?

SANDRA BALEJ: It was not the love of effects that got me into this industry but my love for movies in general. As long as I remember, I have loved to go to the theater to watch a movie up big! We had this amazing old-fashioned theater where I grew up and my parents took me there to watch movies like Babe and Cinderella. I still remember how I loved the whole experience, when the lights went out and the curtains opened – yes, they had curtains back then – and I was taken to this other world for few hours. I guess I just kind of got addicted.

If I had to pinpoint one moment when I decided I wanted to work in the movie industry, it was when I watched my first action film in theater: James Bond in The World is Not Enough. Granted, looking back, I question the quality of it, but I just loved the action and explosions. While I was still a teenager my aspirations were all a bit naïve: “I want to be a director.” But over years of doing research, I realized that I wanted to have a sustainable career where I actually might have a chance to break into this industry that seemed so out of reach. Visual effects seemed to be the right choice. That’s when I decided to go to Vancouver Film School.

Luckily, it turned out I love doing effects. I got a job in Germany right after I graduated, at a small visual effects company, Exozet, mostly doing effects for television. The CEO Olaf Skrzipczyk took his chance with me, hiring me as a generalist but mostly focused on compositing. He and his team taught me so much and groomed me into a proper artist. I will forever be grateful they took me under their wings. We used Fusion back then to composite and that’s what helped me to get my first big break in Roland Emmerich’s Anonymous. Still to this date, it’s one of my favorite projects I have ever worked on. Fusion compositors were hard to come by in Germany at the time, so the compositing supervisor Rony Soussan took his chance and hired this greenhorn of a compositor.

CINEFEX: What aspect of your job makes you grin from ear to ear?

SANDRA BALEJ: Seeing the fans’ reaction to a movie you have been working on for a very long time. Working on high pressure effects movies with tight deadlines, you sometimes lose sight why you were doing in it in the first place, and whenever I start working on a new project I go into this kind of hibernation mode where I put my real life on standby and give everything to the project. Probably not the healthiest approach, but I just can’t help but pour all my energy into something once I start. The year I was working on Doctor Strange, we just had finished delivering the Comic-Con trailer so I was able to escape for a few days. I was a bit in zombie mode after working such long hours but then I saw the fans’ reactions to the trailer. It was goosebump-inducing. That for me makes it all worth it.

CINEFEX: And what makes you sob uncontrollably?

SANDRA BALEJ: Omits. I know they are part of the process of moviemaking and need to happen, but it still hurts when a shot gets cut – especially when you’ve in a lot of work.

CINEFEX: What’s the most challenging task you’ve ever faced?

SANDRA BALEJ: Designing a particular new environment for Ant-Man and the Wasp. I can’t say much since the movie is not released yet, but coming up with this very important look for the movie with the creative team has been the most challenging thing of my career so far.

CINEFEX: And what’s the weirdest task?

SANDRA BALEJ: It was part of that Comic-Con trailer I mentioned earlier. It was a Sunday morning when I got this frantic call from our producer that Marvel needed 10 more frames for a trailer shot – not a weird request in itself. I was the comp supervisor back then, so I just rendered the frames and sent it to them. What was weird was that I received a phone call from Victoria Alonso herself to thank me for doing it on such a short notice. She’s probably already forgotten about it, but I really appreciated the gesture.

CINEFEX: What changes have you observed in your field over the years?

SANDRA BALEJ: In these times of social media and the internet where the fans have lots of opinions, moviemakers have become a bit more flexible in postproduction. Social media platforms and test screenings give them the chance to have their finger on the pulse of the fanbase’s wants and needs. As a consequence, the effects industry has to plan accordingly to keep up with any last-minute changes that need to happen.

CINEFEX: And what changes would you like to see?

SANDRA BALEJ: I wouldn’t shed a tear if we saw fewer stereo-converted movies. I like a good 3D movie like any other guy, but that mostly goes for native stereo movies. The conversion companies nowadays don’t get to spend a lot of time on the process and the experience suffers from that.

CINEFEX: What advice would you give to someone starting out in the business?

SANDRA BALEJ: Try to find a life-work balance. The effects industry is tough on body and mind, especially when you start out. After 10 years in the business, I am still struggling to find it, but sometimes it helps to remember that this is a marathon not a sprint.

CINEFEX: If you were to host a mini-festival of your three favorite effects movies, what would you put on the bill, and why?

SANDRA BALEJ: The Man from Nowhere – I am a big fan of South Korean cinema, and this film is very much a case of incredible invisible effects. Some of the stunt work and the subtle use of effects is just incredible. I worked in Asia for some time as well and it was a great experience. I enjoy seeing the amazing progress the effects quality has made over the last few years over there.

Gravity: I have always been a fan of Alfonso Cuarón’s famous long shots. The 17-minute-long opening shot in Gravity was absolutely stunning.

Independence Day – this classic inspired me a lot when I was a kid. The effects still hold up so well even today. My favorite shot is the spaceship’s first appearance when it’s coming out of that big cloud. Perfect example of how cloud tank footage can sometimes beat heavy effects sims.

CINEFEX: What’s your favorite movie theater snack?

SANDRA BALEJ: I’ll go with the classic – popcorn. But not that weird salty stuff you guys have in North America. I thought I was poisoned the first time I tried it.

CINEFEX: Sandra, thanks for your time!

Now Showing – Cinefex 159

Cinefex 159 - From the Editor's Desk

Sometimes we just can’t decide what to put on the cover of our new issue. Given the lineup of great films in Cinefex 159, is it any wonder we went for one of our legendary double cover options?

On one cover you’ll find a glorious portrait of Thanos, the undoubted star of Avengers: Infinity War, courtesy of our talented friends at Digital Domain. The other cover rewards with a stunning image of Parzival, the virtual reality avatar of Ready Player One’s Wade Watts, crafted by those clever artisans at Industrial Light & Magic.

Whether you end up with Thanos or Parzival – or complete your collection by grabbing both! – you’ll get the same great articles inside. Here’s Cinefex editor-in-chief Jody Duncan to guide you through the contents of our June 2018 issue, Cinefex 159.

Jody Duncan – From the Editor’s Desk

A friend recently pointed out that while we tend to think of ‘nostalgia’ as a benign term, its suffix suggests that it is a malady of sorts, and those who wallow in it are exhibiting unhealthy states of mind. Pardon my pathology, then, but as I considered our new issue 159, I became curious as to where we – ‘we’ meaning Cinefex, cinema and the art and craft of visual effects – were 100 issues ago. ‘What was going on with issue 59?’ I wondered. So I turned to the handy ‘Cinefex back issues’ page on our website to find out.

On the cover of that issue was a shot from James Cameron’s True Lies, Cinefex story written by founder Don Shay. A blurb on the web page describes the film’s main visual effects vendor, Digital Domain, as a ‘startup company.’ Twenty-four years later, that same startup, along with Weta Digital (only a year old when Cinefex 59 hit the stands) delivered some of the most extraordinary computer character animation ever seen on screen with Thanos, in Marvel Studios’ Avengers: Infinity War, which graces the cover of our current issue.

The True Lies page also notes the film’s 100 digital and traditional visual effects shots. A hundred visual effects shots barely gets you five minutes into Infinity War, which boasted a total of nearly 3,000! Another difference? Cameron hung poor Jamie Lee Curtis from a hovering helicopter to get his shots in True Lies. Today, that task would fall to a digital double, and Jamie Lee could stay comfortably in her trailer.

Ah, yes, things are so different now … how I long for the good old days of slow-speed white Ford Bronco freeway chases and $1.15 a gallon gasoline and The X-Files and Sheryl Crow and Dumb and Dumber … wait, huh?

Okay, enough of that. We’re all happy to be in the present, covering the colossal Avengers: Infinity War, along with Steven Spielberg’s Ready Player One, Pacific Rim Uprising and the artful and intriguing Annihilation, from Ex Machina director Alex Garland. The successful marriage of visual effects and art department concepts in this last is of particular interest.

Enjoy the summer!

Cinefex 159 is on newsstands now, and available to order at our online store. If you’re a subscriber, your copy is already punching its way towards your mailbox. And don’t forget our iPad edition, featuring tons more photographs – many of them exclusive to Cinefex – and stunning video content.