About Joe Fordham

I've been writing full-time for Cinefex since 2001 (the year, not the movie). Before Cinefex, I worked in visual effects, special effects, makeup effects, miniature effects, animation and editing in LA and in London. The silhouette in my avatar is my logo for Flashfilms, a website where you'll find links to my filmmaking and creative writing. Flash was my dog.

Cinefex Vault #8: Kill Bill, Vol. 2

Cinefex Vault - Kill Bill, Vol. 2

The first half of director Quentin Tarantino’s hyperkinetic revenge fantasy, Kill Bill, appeared in cinemas six months before its sequel, Vol. 2, and predated the Cinefex Weekly Update online articles. That is why we covered only the latter half of this affair, back in 2004, and now present it here as a bloody orphan aperitif to the 247-minute running time. Tarantino has since flirted with rumors that a third installment would flesh out his epic, in the manner of Sergio Leone’s Dollars trilogy. By any measure, the film stands as an insane tribute to the heyday of 1970s martial arts action epics. Brace yourself.


Sweet Revenge – article by Estelle Shay

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Actor David Carradine (Bill) confers with director Quentin Tarantino.

It took more than 400 gallons of fake blood and hundreds of severed limb and decapitation gags to supply the grist for Quentin Tarantino’s stylish revenge tale Kill Bill Vol. 1 and its sequel Kill Bill Vol. 2. KNB EFX Group, frequent contributors to Tarantino’s films, accepted the grisly assignment with enthusiasm and delight.
Though six months separated the releases of the original Kill Bill and its sequel, both movies were shot simultaneously – Tarantino having initially envisioned them as one before deciding, in the eleventh hour, to split the story into two parts. For KNB, that translated into a monumental effort, begun in June 2002 after just a few weeks of prep, when KNB supervisor and co-founder Howard Berger, along with Chris Nelson and Jake McKinnon, joined the production in Beijing, China. image_03The five-week location shoot soon turned into fourteen, followed by six months of filming on soundstages in Los Angeles, during which time Berger found himself on set nearly every day. “We handled all of the gore and body chops in the first film, which involved hundreds and hundreds of gags – and none of them were digital,” Berger recalled. “Quentin said: ‘I don’t want to do any computer animation stuff. I want it all to be live, in-camera.’ That was a huge task for us. We’d walk on the set, and the stunt team, the actors and Quentin would run through the action for that morning. We’d watch it, and from that learn what we had to do. ‘OK, this guy gets his arm cut off, these five guys get their legs cut off, and there’s a decapitation.’ Then we would have to chop-chop and put together whatever we could.”
Electromagnet technology, adapted by Berger, proved especially useful whenever the action called for limbs and heads to be severed during the bloody swordfights. Berger and his crew made fiberglass cup sections that attached to the actors. image_04These held magnets that were hooked to a power source, with a battery and trigger switch. They then fashioned fake limbs containing metal pieces that would bond to the magnets when the electricity was turned on. When the crew killed the power, the limbs would fall off. “We did a lot of those gags,” recalled Berger. “Everything was a magnet – legs, arms, head, torso. We even did some full standing bodies with electromagnets – we’d hit the button, and the thing would collapse realistically.”

Tarantino insisted on a practical approach even in instances where CG seemed the logical choice. For a sequence in Vol. 1, where Viper assassin O-Ren Ishi (Lucy Liu) loses the top of her head to Uma Thurman’s saber-wielding Bride, Berger and his crew took a casting of Liu’s head, then sculpted an appliance that took advantage of forced perspective. image_05“It was tapered from the front, almost like a pyramid, then fanned out as it went farther back on her head,” explained Berger. “It was a very slim piece, because we didn’t want to make it look like Lucy had a Frankenstein head.” KNB rigged the appliance with blood and applied it to the actress’ head. Specific camera angles on the appliance further sold the illusion.

While Kill Bill Vol. 1 was all gore and gruesome battle scenes, Kill Bill Vol. 2 – different in tone and style – offered a variety of makeup design challenges for KNB. “There’s a sequence in the second film,” Berger explained, “where the Bride gets buried alive and takes on a look we called ‘dirt girl.’ She had to look beautiful, yet filthy. Quentin kept going back to the green dancing girl from the Star Trek TV show, saying: ‘She was green, but still sexy. That’s what I want – something that’s sci-fi, but real.'” After numerous tests, KNB finally hit upon a look that involved a combination of creams to protect Thurman’s skin, mixed with fuller’s earth and chocolate Rice Krispies, painted on with tattoo colors to heighten certain areas. The makeup was applied initially by Berger, then later by Thurman’s makeup artist, Ilona Herman.

Connie Cadwell of KNB FX punches individual hairs into a dummy head, representing actor Michael Madsen, whose character, Budd, is bitten by a snake. KNB built the head, along with a full body double of the actor for a fight sequence in Budd's trailer. Photo copyright © 2004 by Miramax. Photo courtesy of KNB EFX Group.

Connie Cadwell of KNB FX punches individual hairs into a dummy head, representing actor Michael Madsen, whose character, Budd, is bitten by a snake. KNB built the head, along with a full body double of the actor for a fight sequence in Budd’s trailer. Photo copyright © 2004 by Miramax. Photo courtesy of KNB EFX Group.

KNB also designed makeups for Gordon Liu as kung fu master Pai Mei, and for Michael Parks, who switches roles in the second film to play an 80-year-old whorehouse pimp. For Michael Madsen – whose character, Budd, is bitten in the face by a deadly black mamba – KNB built and puppeteered several mechanical snakes on set, then devised three stages of makeup for the actor, depicting the grisly effects of the venom.

For Vol. 2‘s action centerpiece – an all-out catfight between the Bride and Elle Driver (Daryl Hannah) – KNB had to do some quick thinking when Tarantino decided to alter the sequence just before it was due to be shot. “Originally,” said Berger, “there was going to be this whole big swordfight outside a trailer, sort of Samurai Lone Wolf fashion. One of the two characters gets sliced in the neck, and you see the blood spraying out, almost like you were holding down a can of red spray paint. Then the camera pulls back, and we see that it’s Daryl.

“We were prepped and ready to shoot; but then, Quentin came in the next day and said: image_08‘I had a dream last night, and I want to change the whole sequence. Daryl’s not going to get it that way.’ When you’re working with Quentin, you have to be on point the whole time. It makes you work that much harder.”

Despite the occasional surprises, Berger wouldn’t have traded the experience for anything. “This was one of the most fun projects I’ve ever been on,” Berger concluded. “Working with Quentin is really an amazing experience because he pushes and pushes you. It’s not out of ego, or not knowing what he wants. He pushes you because he wants you to do your best — to do as good a job as he’s doing.”

Photos copyright © 2004 by Miramax.

Cinefex Vault #7: Ray Harryhausen – An Animated Life

Cinefex Vault - Ray Harryhausen - An Animated Life

Following Don Shay’s review of Peter Ellenshaw’s autobiography, Cinefex presented an online review of another literary property by a visual effects giant, the first exhaustive authorized volume in which Ray Harryhausen discussed his own life and work – resurrected here at the Cinefex Vault as another one for the ages.


Adventures in Fantasy – book review by Joe Fordham

Stop-motion maestro Ray Harryhausen performs a touch-up on the Kraken during production of his final motion picture, Clash of the Titans. In addition to numerous short subjects, Harryhausen provided stop-motion and other visual effects for 16 feature films spanning six decades.

Stop-motion maestro Ray Harryhausen performs a touch-up on the Kraken during production of his final motion picture, Clash of the Titans. In addition to numerous short subjects, Harryhausen provided stop-motion and other visual effects for 16 feature films spanning six decades. Photo copyright © 1991 by Titan Productions.

“What is there to be said that is new about Ray Harryhausen?” asks writer Ray Bradbury in his forward to the current book by his life-long friend. The answer, as chronicled by stop-motion legend Harryhausen and film historian Tony Dalton in Ray Harryhausen: An Animated Life, is quite a lot – 304 glossy pages crammed with text, photographs, film posters, diagrams and sketches – many previously unpublished from Harryhausen’s personal archives.

The book, which appeared last November in the United Kingdom – where Harryhausen has resided for decades – has now been released in the United States with considerable fanfare and a full-blown book tour by the author. This is Harryhausen’s second book, following the slim, technically deficient Film Fantasy Scrapbook – which first appeared in 1972, with revisions in 1974 and 1981 – a mostly-pictorial guide to creatures that have populated the effects maestro’s films. An Animated Life towers over that. The book is part confessional – revealing techniques never previously divulged by their creator – and part love letter to a craft that Harryhausen describes in meticulous prose as ‘dimensional animation.’

Ray Harryhausen's first feature work was on the original Mighty Joe Young, in which he produced most of the film's animation under the supervision and tutelage of his mentor, Willis O'Brien. Photo copyright © 1949 by RKO Radio Pictures.

Ray Harryhausen’s first feature work was on the original Mighty Joe Young, in which he produced most of the film’s animation under the supervision and tutelage of his mentor, Willis O’Brien.
Photo copyright © 1949 by RKO Radio Pictures.

Bradbury sets the tone in his spirited introduction. Tony Dalton’s preface continues in similar vein, recounting his 30-year friendship with Harryhausen – almost half the length of time Bradbury has known him – and outlines his journey into the archives of the British Film Institute, where much of his research material was obtained. The book is an exhaustive historical study, five years in the making, covering the production of every one of Harryhausen’s films, written by the man himself with the support of close contemporaries.

While fans may be familiar with the films described, Harryhausen is quick to shoot down frequently printed fallacies, such as the origin of the material used to skin his first animated creature, the title character in Cavebear in 1935 – not purloined illicitly from his mother’s favorite fur coat! He also goes to pains to place his peers in context – tracing how his first employer and mentor, Willis O’Brien, made the transition from sculptor in a San Francisco marble shop to the creator of King Kong – and outlining his own lineage.

In 20 Million Miles to Earth, the Ymir -- a creature from Venus -- hatches from an egg and grows to monstrous proportions. For a sequence in which the Ymir confronts an escaped circus elephant on the streets of Rome, Harryhausen animated both creatures and a fleeing human. Photo copyright © 1957 by Columbia Pictures.

In 20 Million Miles to Earth, the Ymir — a creature from Venus — hatches from an egg and grows to monstrous proportions. For a sequence in which the Ymir confronts an escaped circus elephant on the streets of Rome, Harryhausen animated both creatures and a fleeing human. Photo copyright © 1957 by Columbia Pictures.

Fred and Martha Harryhausen are pictured as the loving parents of a strange, but talented only child in pre-World War II Los Angeles, assisting their son in fabricating miniature costumes, props and creature armatures, as long as their manual dexterity remained. Harryhausen lists other early influences – including the fiction of H.G. Wells, the art of Gustav Doré, John Martin and Charles R. Knight – touchstones that remained with him his entire career, as illustrated in atmospheric pencil and charcoal creature concepts, from his earliest student renderings to Force of the Trojans, an unrealized project that was to have followed his 1981 swan song, Clash of the Titans.

The 7th Voyage of Sinbad represented Harryhausen's first venture into color, a factor which necessitated the changing of many effects techniques he had developed over the years. It also represented a shift away from contemporary times and single-character animation to episodic confrontations between human protagonists and a variety of mythological creatures. Photo copyright © 1958 by Columbia Pictures.

The 7th Voyage of Sinbad represented Harryhausen’s first venture into color, a factor which necessitated the changing of many effects techniques he had developed over the years. It also represented a shift away from contemporary times and single-character animation to episodic confrontations between human protagonists and a variety of mythological creatures. Photo copyright © 1958 by Columbia Pictures.

Unrealized projects abound in the back pages of the book, which contains a catalogue of 53 ‘Lost Worlds,’ including some titles now in development by present-day filmmakers. Harryhausen relates how he decided J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit was not suitable for a live-action/dimensional-animation treatment, then adds: “How wrong I was!” Harryhausen also recalls how, following The 7th Voyage of Sinbad, he and producer Charles H. Schneer discussed, and rejected, the idea of doing an adaptation of Edgar Rice Burroughs’ John Carter of Mars: “We felt the story simply wasn’t strong enough.” Harryhausen states the unrealized project he most wanted to pursue was The War of the Worlds, retaining H.G. Wells’ Victorian setting. The book contains illustrations of Harryhausen’s proposals for the film, which he submitted to producer George Pal in 1950, before learning that Pal had already been in discussions with Paramount to mount a contemporary adaptation.

The Valley of Gwangi, a prehistoric drama set within the framework of a western, was based on an unrealized Willis O'Brien project that had been in preproduction, then abandoned, nearly 30 years earlier. Photo copyright © 1969 by Warner Bros.

The Valley of Gwangi, a prehistoric drama set within the framework of a western, was based on an unrealized Willis O’Brien project that had been in preproduction, then abandoned, nearly 30 years earlier. Photo copyright © 1969 by Warner Bros.

A chronological filmography follows, listing Harryhausen’s short films, television commercials, documentaries for the Army Signal Corps and 16 feature films. Harryhausen and Dalton then supply a glossary of filmmaking terms, which are quite poetic in their descriptions of photochemical and stop-motion paraphernalia. Digital artists should take note as Harryhausen reveals methods by which he rigged saucers to fly in his 1956 production Earth Vs. the Flying Saucers – physically hand-painting wires prior to exposing every frame to render them invisible. Unfortunately, the book then concludes without an index to provide easy reference for this compendium of a lifetime’s achievement.

For Jason and the Argonauts, considered by many his magnum opus, Harryhausen created a fiendishly complex sequence in which live characters battle seven skeleton swordsmen. On some of the shots, Harryhausen was able to average only 13-14 frames per day -- less than a second of screen time. Photo copyright © 1963 by Columbia Pictures.

For Jason and the Argonauts, considered by many his magnum opus, Harryhausen created a fiendishly complex sequence in which live characters battle seven skeleton swordsmen. On some of the shots, Harryhausen was able to average only 13-14 frames per day — less than a second of screen time. Photo copyright © 1963 by Columbia Pictures.

But Ray Harryhausen: An Animated Life is a rare entity. Despite its considerable bulk, the book is immensely readable, a hoot from front to back, as well as a treasure trove of imagery and reference material. As anyone who has stood in line to meet the man will attest, Harryhausen is a bright and witty storyteller, with a craftsman’s passion for film and an intolerance for interfering producers. All the anecdotes are here — the ‘sixtopus’ from It Came From Beneath the Sea and, at last, the real story of how he choreographed seven sword-fighting skeletons. Throughout, the narrative enthralls and captivates.

Cinefex Vault #6: The Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind

Cinefex Vault - The Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind

While tracking down the artists responsible for the effects of The Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, visual effects supervisor Louis Morin confided to me, ‘You’ve got the wrong man. The real magician here is Michel Gondry.’ Normally, the production’s visual effects supervisor is a good barometer for a film’s artistic and technical effects; but Louis was not being disingenuous. As we spoke about the film, it became apparent what a vivid and fantastic imagination the director had, and it would have been fascinating to track down monsieur Gondry, the rock and roll maestro of the avante-garde – another day, perhaps. But time was our enemy, and in fact I had to hand my transcript to my editor, Jody Duncan, due to another pressing deadline. Here is our joint effort, unearthed from the Cinefex Vault, attempting to describe the magic tricks of this unique and charming film.


Random Access Memory – article by Jody Duncan and Joe Fordham

In Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, Jim Carrey and Kate Winslet play Joel and Clementine, a couple coming out of a failed relationship, who decide to undergo a questionable medical procedure to erase all memories of each other. Midway through the procedure, Joel realizes he is making a terrible mistake, and attempts to thwart the erasure by hiding memories of Clem where they cannot be found.

In Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, Jim Carrey and Kate Winslet play Joel and Clementine, a couple coming out of a failed relationship, who decide to undergo a questionable medical procedure to erase all memories of each other. Midway through the procedure, Joel realizes he is making a terrible mistake, and attempts to thwart the erasure by hiding memories of Clem where they cannot be found.

In director Michel Gondry’s Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, screenwriter Charlie Kaufman plumbs a consciousness-bending story about a man, Joel Barish (Jim Carrey), who attempts to ease the pain of a breakup by undergoing a procedure that will erase all memories of the relationship from his mind. Joel’s attempts to interrupt the erasure mid-procedure – all from within his subconscious – set the story in a world that is part reality, part waking dream.

That surreal world was the stuff of visual effects, more than 100 realized by Custom Film Effects. Buzz Image Group took on only 16 shots, but each was a critical depiction of Joel’s altered mind as, one by one, his memories of Clementine (Kate Winslet) are deconstructed, abstracted and, finally, erased.

The memory abstractions are sometimes blatant, sometimes subtle. In a sequence early in the film, Joel – in his car – follows Clementine as she walks angrily down a sidewalk. “This was a hand-held, non-effects shot,” said Buzz visual effects supervisor Louis Morin, “but in the scene, Jim Carrey says a line about everything falling apart – and Michel wanted to emphasize that feeling.” To visually support the idea of a world falling apart, Gondry suggested removing one of Clementine’s legs in the scene. “I said: ‘Okay, it’s possible – but this is a swish-pan, and it is going to be so fast, nobody will see it.’ But he wanted to try it; so we replaced Clem’s real legs with CGI legs, did 3D tracking and remodeled the sidewalk she was walking on.”

Determined to limit the number of visual effects in the film, director Michael Gondry used in-camera trickery wherever possible. For a scene in which Joel transports Clem into his childhood memories, production built a forced-perspective kitchen set to render Jim Carrey child-size.

Determined to limit the number of visual effects in the film, director Michael Gondry used in-camera trickery wherever possible. For a scene in which Joel transports Clem into his childhood memories, production built a forced-perspective kitchen set to render Jim Carrey child-size.

The first attempt at the shot bore out Morin’s initial concerns. “Nobody could see it,” said Morin, “because it was so fast. I asked if they had a longer take of Clem walking, and they did – but in that one, she wasn’t turning her head properly. So we combined takes in the swish-pan, tracked the head from the first take onto Clem in the longer take, and put in a whole CGI background.” In that background, a car crashes behind a fence, unnoticed by Clem. “That was a CGI car and a CGI fence. It was a shocking event to keep the audience on their toes, to say, ‘Look – some pretty unusual things will be shown to you in this movie.'”

Joel jumps out of his car and runs up and down the block – his car, magically, situated at both ends. The shot required two months of Inferno time at Buzz. “We had to track all the shots,” Morin commented, “four takes, going from one side of the street to the other. Everything was shot hand-held, so we had to use 3D tracking, and then create transitions. There’s a lamppost and a mailbox there, and we switched from one take to the other, flipping the image so it was a mirror effect as he was running back and forth. It was partly a morph, switching speed, retracking shots into one another. It’s not 100% seamless, but pretty close, considering that everything was shot hand-held and the perspective was off. We had to freeze-frame the shot, track it manually and reposition camera projections. We also erased signs and interiors of the stores along the street using matte-painted projections.”

The street scene ends with Joel falling down, only to bounce up, rewind-style, onto a sofa in his apartment where he eats takeout Chinese food with Clem. Buzz took reverse footage of Carrey falling from a sofa, filmed on the street, and combined it with an element of Carrey seated on the same sofa in the apartment set. “We used an Elastic Reality morph for that,” said Morin. “We also had to add CG chopsticks in his hand. He had actually held real chopsticks in the plate with Clem; but for this shot, we had to remove them and put in CGI ones that would match the chopsticks in his hand when he initially falls.”

For a metaphoric scene in which a beach house, meaningful to Joel and Clem, crumbles and collapses, Buzz Image Group created a 3D replication of the house and animated its falling apart. The wintertime shot was enhanced with snow elements sliding from the roof.

For a metaphoric scene in which a beach house, meaningful to Joel and Clem, crumbles and collapses, Buzz Image Group created a 3D replication of the house and animated its falling apart. The wintertime shot was enhanced with snow elements sliding from the roof.

image_05image_04

In another scene, Joel and Clem sit in a car, watching a drive-in movie from outside the establishment’s fence, inventing their own dialogue for the characters on the screen. As the memory is erased, Clem and the car flicker in and out. The fence then disappears, slat by slat, chasing after Joel and Clem in the animation style of Norman McLaren’s National Film Board of Canada. Carrey and Winslet were shot in a real car – once with Winslet inside and once without, to capture elements for the flicker effect. Buzz then replaced the car with a CGI car as the characters run out of the vehicle. “We modeled different parts of the car,” said Morin, “then sliced away the 3D objects, like an MRI brain slice.” Buzz also created the fence animation by removing the fence in the live-action plates and replacing it with matte paintings rendered in Photoshop and projected onto 3D geometry.

Buzz’s biggest shot is near the end of the film, when a house on the beach in Long Island – the setting of a pivotal moment in the couple’s relationship – crumbles, a visual metaphor for Joel’s losing grasp of Clementine. Buzz began work on the shot based on Gondry’s first directive to create a stop-motion look; then revised the approach to include more real-time elements such as animated bricks falling from the chimney, tracked into a CGI house. “Michel thought that was going in the right direction – but he wanted more,” said Morin. “So we found some reference footage of real houses collapsing, and then animated the whole house with hard-body dynamics. What you see is a house collapsing in four seconds – all CG.”

The surreal images in Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind – digital effects sprinkled with in-camera and forced perspective gags, all achieved without the use of bluescreen or motion control – sprang from a filmmaker who approaches visual effects more as a magician than a technician. “A magician makes you look at one place while the trick is happening somewhere else,” said Morin. “Michel does that with effects. You expect an effect at one point in a shot, but the effect is already done by the time you get there. He fools you – and that’s part of his cleverness. Everything is possible in his mind.”

Photos copyright © 2004 by Focus Features.

Cinefex Vault #5: Monster

Cinefex Vault - MonsterThe Cinefex Vault of online articles contains some curiosities, including some accounts of films so off the beaten track they might not at first appear to contain any special effects. Such was the case with director Patty Jenkins’ Monster, which – despite its title – contained no creatures of fantasy. Instead, the title referred to a stunning performance by actress Charlize Theron who slipped completely into the skin of a convicted psychopath, earning her ‘Best Actress’ at the 2004 Oscars and Independent Spirit Awards. A key collaborator in Theron’s transformation was makeup designer Toni G, who in the run up to the 2004 awards season reflected here on her experience helping to transform one of cinema’s great beauties into the face of brutal killer.


Skin-Deep Monster – article by Jody Duncan / interview by Joe Fordham

Among those nominated for the best actress Academy Award this year is Charlize Theron, whose chilling turn as serial killer Aileen Wournos in Patty Jenkins’ Monster has garnered ecstatic critical reviews – many of which note how thoroughly Theron disappears in the role. Gone is the svelte, creamy-skinned, blue-eyed beauty; in her place is a near-perfect re-creation of Wournos, complete with ravaged hair and skin, crooked teeth and dumpy body.

Makeup artist Toni G deglamorized actress Charlize Theron for her role as executed serial killer Aileen Wournos in writer-director Patty Jenkins' motion picture, co-starring Christina Ricci.

Makeup artist Toni G deglamorized actress Charlize Theron for her role as executed serial killer Aileen Wournos in writer-director Patty Jenkins’ motion picture, co-starring Christina Ricci.

Historically, Oscar has honored beautiful women who have shed their vanity for the sake of a juicy role. Elizabeth Taylor as the frumpy Martha in Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? won the best actress statuette, as did Hilary Swank playing the boyish, gender-confused Brandon Teena in Boys Don’t Cry, and The Hours’ Nicole Kidman, whose natural beauty was obscured by a prosthetic nose. If Theron continues that trend with a win on Oscar night, she is likely to acknowledge the contribution of Toni G, the makeup artist responsible for her startling physical transformation.

Recommended to Theron and Jenkins by Rick Baker’s Cinovation Studio, Toni G met with the actress and the director well before the start of filming to devise an overall approach to the makeup assignment. “When they first called me,” Toni G recalled, “I thought that Charlize Theron as Aileen Wournos was a bit of a stretch. But when I met with Patty and Charlize, I realized that it was definitely achievable. Charlize was so completely inspired, she inspired me! I thought, ‘Yes, this is possible.'”

At that first meeting, Jenkins and Theron made it clear that they wanted to pursue a non-prosthetic approach. “Prosthetics weren’t even considered,” Toni G said, “mainly because there wasn’t the budget to do that. But I never thought prosthetics were necessary, anyway.” The plan was to have Theron gain 30 pounds – which, in itself, would go a long way toward changing her appearance – and then implement the other changes through straightforward makeup and hairstyling techniques. As a start, Toni G researched a wealth of archival material on Wournos. “There were so many great photographs of Aileen and so much video coverage, it was a dream. I had a plethora of research material.”

In the days leading up to the shoot, Toni G applied test makeups on friends in her garage, arriving at a final makeup that emphasized Wournos’ key characteristics. Among the most crucial were her misshapen eyebrows and dry, over-bleached hair. Rather than wear a wig, Theron gamely endured a day-long hair-frying and hair-thinning session with hairstylist Katie Swanson. Her eyebrows also took abuse. “Charlize’s eyebrows needed to be completely changed to frame her face differently,” Toni G noted, “so I took off all the outside part of her eyebrows, and also bleached them. Eyebrows are an amazing representation of what people go through in their lives. You can see an angry person, a happy person, a gentle person, all through the eyebrows. Aileen’s eyebrows had a tendency to angle upward towards her forehead, which created an angry expression.” Contact lenses further altered the actress’ eyes, changing their color from blue to brown and giving them a deeper, more haunted look.

Wournos’ crooked, stained and rotting teeth were another distinguishing feature. Toni G covered Theron’s straight, white teeth with prosthetic dentures, which also served to push out her mouth slightly, making it appear wider. Toni G hired Yoishi ‘Art’ Sakamoto, with whom she had worked at Cinovation, to make the dentures. “Art took a dental impression, and then came up with some prototype dentures, painting on the discoloration and detail. We discussed what needed to be changed, and went from there. It was important that the dentures be thick enough to look realistic, but thin enough not to impede Charlize’s speech. We got a practice pair out to her as soon as possible – about a month before they started shooting – so she could get accustomed to speaking with them. It takes time for a person to learn how to speak properly with prosthetic dentures, so that they don’t distract from the performance.”

Theron (left) and Wournos (right).

Theron (left) and Wournos (right).

Even with the excess weight, damaged hair, crooked teeth and bleached and over-tweezed eyebrows, Theron’s beauty shone through. “We had all those things together,” Toni G recalled, “but she still had this creamy, poreless, gorgeous skin. With makeup, I had to create the years of abuse to her skin – all the freckles and capillaries and sun damage – either through hand-painting or working with an airbrush.” The makeup artist used an alcohol-based, makeup-industry ‘tattoo ink’ to create layers of translucent washes, building up the skin damage to suggest depth and dimensionality. A sealant called ‘Green Marble’ was applied to create additional texture, and was also used liberally to prevent the makeup from running off in a scene in which Wournos appears in the shower.

With practice, Toni G got the makeup application time down to a single hour. “I remember the first day we did the whole makeup on Charlize. It gave me goose bumps. She walked out of the trailer, lit a cigarette – and Charlize was gone.”

A symbiotic fusion of Toni G’s makeup and Charlize Theron’s extraordinary performance resulted in a stunning on-screen representation of the troubled Aileen Wournos. “If Charlize had given a brilliant performance, but still looked like Charlize,” Toni G concluded, “that would have been very distracting. But if not for her brilliant performance, the teeth, the makeup, the hair – none of it would have worked.”

Photo copyrights © 2003 by Newmarket Films.

Cinefex Vault #4: Hidalgo

Cinefex Vault - HidalgoSeeing Hidalgo at Walt Disney’s art deco cinema palace, the El Capitan in Hollywood, was fitting. My parents were in town, and I wanted to treat them to an old fashioned night at the movies, so we loaded up on popcorn and we were not disappointed. It was a rousing, romantic adventure about a man and his mustang, cut from the same cloth as director Joe Johnston’s The Rocketeer, albeit with more horseplay and fewer rockets. So I was happy to cover the film, chatting with ILM’s amiable visual effects supervisor Tim Alexander, and I’m happy to resurrect the story here from our online Cinefex Vault.


Horse Sense – article by Joe Fordham

Industrial Light & Magic visual effects supervisor Tim Alexander oversaw the visual effects work on director Joe Johnston's sprawling adventure, Hidalgo. Photo by Sean Casey. Courtesy of ILM.

Industrial Light & Magic visual effects supervisor Tim Alexander oversaw the visual effects work on director Joe Johnston’s sprawling adventure, Hidalgo. Photo by Sean Casey. Courtesy of ILM.

At age 32, Tim Alexander is one of a generation of artists at Industrial Light & Magic whose date of birth approximates the studio’s founding date. A digital compositor since his early twenties, Alexander drew upon that bedrock experience as he assumed the role of visual effects supervisor for director Joe Johnston’s Hidalgo. “I tend to look for a 2D solution before considering 3D,” Alexander observed. “There were quite a few sequences in Hidalgo where we could have gone with either 3D animation or a 2D composite, and we decided to go with 2D.”

The film focuses on Frank Hopkins (Viggo Mortensen), an ex-U.S. Cavalry dispatch rider who accepts the challenge of a wealthy sheik (Omar Sharif) to enter his favorite mustang, Hidalgo, in a 3,000-mile Arabian horse race. Settings spanned from 1890’s American Wild West to the far reaches of the Sahara. The latter was represented by locations in Morocco, where Alexander and his small crew spent six weeks capturing scenic digital stills and advising on technical issues. “It was grueling,” Alexander recalled. “We were working with dust storms and animals – and everybody got sick! One night, I had a temperature of 107 degrees.”

Frank Hopkins (Viggo Mortensen) and his mustang, Hidalgo, pitted against some of the world's foremost thoroughbred horses, outrun a fearsome sandstorm during a 68-day, 3,000-mile endurance race across the Arabian desert.

Frank Hopkins (Viggo Mortensen) and his mustang, Hidalgo, pitted against some of the world’s foremost thoroughbred horses, outrun a fearsome sandstorm during a 68-day, 3,000-mile endurance race across the Arabian desert.

Johnston limited time at the harsh location by using visual effects for a sequence in which Hopkins rescues the sheik’s daughter by vaulting across Moroccan rooftops. “We were supposed to shoot above a mosque,” related Alexander, “but Joe asked us to re-create the environment against bluescreen in LA. Luckily, he had established the scene at ground level so the tops of the buildings weren’t visible and we could take some liberty with architecture. We shot a ton of stills; then, back at ILM, we built a 2½D background, mapping stills onto rough geometry to create multiplane and parallax effects.”

For an establishing shot of Hopkins arriving at the port of Aden, a set representing the front the ship was shot in Los Angeles. The rear of the ship was an ILM digital extension. The camel train and people disembarking were filmed in the desert in Morocco, while the water, small boats and background wall were photographed at a coastal town in Morocco. ILM digital compositor Tory Mercer assembled the shot.

For an establishing shot of Hopkins arriving at the port of Aden, a set representing the front the ship was shot in Los Angeles. The rear of the ship was an ILM digital extension. The camel train and people disembarking were filmed in the desert in Morocco, while the water, small boats and background wall were photographed at a coastal town in Morocco. ILM digital compositor Tory Mercer assembled the shot.

Horse trainer Rex Peterson supplied five mustangs to represent Hidalgo. The only animal animation involved a pair of leopards that menace Hopkins and a companion during the race. The digital work proved necessary when the performances of real leopards – shipped to the location and later split-screened into scenes with horses – were found lacking. “It was very difficult to make the leopards look aggressive,” said Alexander, “because they knew they were going back to their cage to eat at the end of every day. So, for some shots, we chose to re-create the leopards in CG.” The CG leopard was modeled from reference of the leopards on set and from animal motion studies. “Very early on, we did a couple of tests using motion capture data of dogs, which we had used for Hulk. But when we applied that to the leopards, they just looked like dogs, so we abandoned that idea.” ILM revisited the live leopards and shot video of them performing various actions from six different angles. Animation director Sylvia Wong and her team then rotoscoped the video to the CG leopard. “That gave us fluid and organic-looking behavior – but the leopards still didn’t look aggressive enough. So we used that as a starting point and key-framed everything from there.”

A tsunami sandstorm -- created with volumetric particles -- overtakes many of the riders early in the race.

A tsunami sandstorm — created with volumetric particles — overtakes many of the riders early in the race.

Another action sequence featured a sandstorm that chases Hopkins and Hidalgo into an abandoned desert mosque. During principal photography, special effects supervisor Bruno Van Zeebroeck used air mortars to create a blast of sand impacting the desert location. ILM created the wider views in post. “Sandstorms in real life are very amorphous and undefined,” observed Alexander, “but Joe decided it would be more effective to see a wall of sand.” ILM generated the sandstorm in RenderMan, using volumetric particles. “We wanted it to feel like the storm was sucking up the desert like a vacuum cleaner. The front edge pulled debris off the ground, whipped it up the wall, then it slowed near the top, creating a sense of speed and scale.”

A plague of locusts obscures the sun. Over plate photography shot in Morocco at sunrise, ILM created the locust swarm as particles with a locust model attached. Locusts closest to camera were rendered at higher resolution than those in the background, allowing many more particles to be created.

A plague of locusts obscures the sun. Over plate photography shot in Morocco at sunrise, ILM created the locust swarm as particles with a locust model attached. Locusts closest to camera were rendered at higher resolution than those in the background, allowing many more particles to be created.

Digital matte artists enhanced the scope of the production with matte paintings that referenced the work of 19th-century ‘Orientalist’ painter Jean-Léon Gérome – particularly Gérome’s The Call to Prayer – for an urban Moroccan vista. “We embellished the landscape and placed a guy in a big tall tower in the background, exactly as it was in Gérome’s painting,” said Alexander. “For a lower angle, where a steamship was parked at the dock and the camera panned to reveal a camel train, we piecemealed the shot together. Half the boat was practical, shot in Los Angeles, and the back part was CG. The water came from Morocco. The right of frame came from the desert in Morocco, nowhere near the ocean. It was quite a blend.”

Frank Hopkins runs down a sand dune as the swarming locusts overtake him.

Frank Hopkins runs down a sand dune as the swarming locusts overtake him.

The ending of the film, set in the United States, involved a spectacular stampede of mustangs, enhanced with 2D effects. “They had 500 horses out on location in Montana,” said Alexander, “but when they released them into the wide-open spaces, it looked like nothing! We replicated the horses and made 2,500 out of the 500.” Shot from a roving helicopter perspective, the horse release was an unrepeatable event, which tested the skills of ILM matchmove and compositing artists. “We couldn’t shoot multiple takes, and the horses could only run the course once or twice a day; so we ended up using bits of other footage and tracking horses into the earlier environment with dust effects.”

For a sequence in which Hopkins rescues the kidnapped daughter of a powerful sheik, rooftop scenes were shot on a foreground set in front of a bluescreen. Background structures, mountains and sky were photographed as still images and mapped onto a 2½D matte painting to permit perspective shifts on moving camera shots.

For a sequence in which Hopkins rescues the kidnapped daughter of a powerful sheik, rooftop scenes were shot on a foreground set in front of a bluescreen. Background structures, mountains and sky were photographed as still images and mapped onto a 2½D matte painting to permit perspective shifts on moving camera shots.

The lengthy and demanding production resulted in 216 effects shots, yet ultimately proved a painless experience for Alexander and his team due to the involvement of ILM alumnus Joe Johnston. “We spent 118 days on location in Montana, South Dakota, Morocco, the deserts of California, all over,” stated Alexander. “But if ever we couldn’t be there, Joe shot all the elements we needed. He really knew what he was doing, and that definitely helped.”

All other photos copyright © 2004 by Disney Enterprises. Courtesy of ILM.

Cinefex Vault #3: Ellenshaw Under Glass

Cinefex Vault - Ellenshaw Under GlassWeighing in at nearly eight and a half pounds, Ellenshaw Under Glass – the handsome autobiography of matte artist Peter Ellenshaw – was a mighty tome. This was not a book to read in bed, or sitting on a bus. Rather, it required a lectern to hold it open, particularly if the reader had been lucky enough to acquire the Deluxe Edition with plexiglass cover and 3D lenticular image of Peter perched atop a cloud, above Mary Poppins’ London. Spectacular, personable and occasionally quite moving, this was a fantastic read about one of the effects industry’s most gifted artists, a true gentleman with an impish sense of humor. Read on to learn more about this landmark book in Don Shay’s review from the Cinefex Vault. The book is still available at the link below.


An Artist’s Journey – book review by Don Shay

For the grand opening of Disneyland, master matte artist Peter Ellenshaw painted an aerial view of the park, which appeared on the first Disneyland postcard and souvenir guidebook. A fixture at the Disney studio for decades, Ellenshaw contributed visual effects and/or production design for nearly all of the Disney live-action films produced during Walt Disney's lifetime.

For the grand opening of Disneyland, master matte artist Peter Ellenshaw painted an aerial view of the park, which appeared on the first Disneyland postcard and souvenir guidebook. A fixture at the Disney studio for decades, Ellenshaw contributed visual effects and/or production design for nearly all of the Disney live-action films produced during Walt Disney’s lifetime.

Like most aspects of visual effects, the art of movie matte painting has been transformed by technology, to the point that ‘before digital’ and ‘after digital’ techniques and end products seem only distantly related. Today, a matte painting can be a full environment – a three-dimensional collage of images and textures over, through and around which a camera, without film or lens, can be flown with total freedom. Not all that many years ago, a matte painting was … well, a painting.

Matte paintings were among the earliest visual effects tools; and for decades, filmmakers used variations on the theme to affordably alter and expand movie settings, both interior and exterior. The era of traditional matte painting was comprehensively and elegantly chronicled in The Invisible Art, by Mark Cotta Vaz and Craig Barron, published in 2002, a must-have volume for anyone with a love for the art and history of visual effects.

A companion volume now exists. Peter Ellenshaw, one of the Michelangelos of matte painting, has produced Ellenshaw Under Glass – a mammoth coffee-table book filled with photographs and artwork and recollections spanning the entirety of his 80-plus years. Ellenshaw suggests that his love of painting dates to his World War I childhood, when he and his sisters were hustled under a kitchen table, with paper and crayons to amuse themselves, whenever German zeppelins made bombing runs over London. Having taught himself to paint by copying the old masters, Ellenshaw eventually approached the only artist he knew of – pioneer matte painter and effects artist W. Percy Day. Ellenshaw spent seven years with the curmudgeonly master, learning the art and craft of visual effects on high-profile Korda productions, before setting off on his own. Eventually his work caught the eye of Walt Disney, who hired him to do matte paintings on his first live-action films, produced in England. The artist recalls creating 62 matte shots in 27 weeks for one of them. With no firm prospect of employment, Ellenshaw moved his family to the United States, where he soon made a career for himself within the Disney organization, working closely with the studio’s gruff patriarch, who took an almost fatherly interest in the ambitious young artist.

On his first Disney project, Treasure Island, Ellenshaw transformed an empty harbor with a single vintage sailing ship into a crowded 19th-century seaport.

On his first Disney project, Treasure Island, Ellenshaw transformed an empty harbor with a single vintage sailing ship into a crowded 19th-century seaport.

image_03Ellenshaw Under Glass is not a technical treatise on matte painting, or even a comprehensive account of Ellenshaw’s considerable body of work, but rather a personal memoir. He does, however, explain the fundamentals of matte painting, from vintage on-set glass paintings to dupe-negative optical composites to original-negative matte shots – citing a near disaster on 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea in delineating the risks of the latter approach. He also explains – and illustrates with details from a painting he created for Spartacus – the impressionistic art of incorporating just enough detail into a matte painting. Too much is as bad as too little.

Ellenshaw offers fascinating chapters on his early work with ‘Pop’ Day, and provides anecdotal, if not comprehensive details on such Disney classics as 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, Darby O’Gill and the Little People and Mary Poppins. Photographically, the book is a marvel – 334 pages of matte paintings, concept art and behind-the-scenes photos, seasoned with personal photos and mementos. Happily, Ellenshaw was not one to throw things away.

One of many concept paintings Ellenshaw created for The Sword and the Rose. In only 27 weeks, he produced 62 matte shots for the period film. A fast and prolific artist, Ellenshaw often rendered color sketches in just a few minutes, and full eight-foot-wide matte paintings in as little as three days.

One of many concept paintings Ellenshaw created for The Sword and the Rose. In only 27 weeks, he produced 62 matte shots for the period film. A fast and prolific artist, Ellenshaw often rendered color sketches in just a few minutes, and full eight-foot-wide matte paintings in as little as three days.

Bruce Gordon and David Mumford – who collaborated with Ellenshaw on the book – explain in an afterword that the original intent was to have Ellenshaw write only a outline, which they would then flesh out into book length. By the time he finished with it, however, Ellenshaw’s ‘outline’ was so rich with detail that it was already book length – and it needed only to be shaped and polished. Ellenshaw writes with a clipped, short-hand style. Thoughts and memories cascade onto the page. He talks to himself in italicized asides – often self-deprecating. Incomplete and run-on sentences abound. Setups and segues are sparse. Though the style is jarring at first, the text is endearingly conversational – as if the reader is sitting in Ellenshaw’s living room listening to him reminisce while he pages through a lifetime’s worth of scrapbooks. As a writer, Ellenshaw has a singular, if unconventional, voice – and Gordon and Mumford are to be commended for not ‘improving’ upon it.

Peter Ellenshaw won an Academy Award for his work on Mary Poppins. An initial concept sketch for a shot of Mary and her charges exploring the rooftops of London -- and the final matte painting for the scene, with empty areas for live-action elements.

Peter Ellenshaw won an Academy Award for his work on Mary Poppins. An initial concept sketch for a shot of Mary and her charges exploring the rooftops of London — and the final matte painting for the scene, with empty areas for live-action elements.

image_07Whether recollecting his childhood in England, his early days in the movie business, his wartime experiences as a pilot, his long and fruitful years at Disney, or his second career as a fine art painter, Ellenshaw flavors his text with warmth and wit. A man of artistic temperament and conviction, Ellenshaw was ever forthright in his views and not averse to butting heads with his professional elders – but never with Walt Disney, whom he clearly revered. In the end, Ellenshaw Under Glass is a valentine to the artist’s longtime employer and friend, and to his beloved wife Bobbie, his muse and mate of 58 years, whose death, before this book was completed, broke his heart – but not his spirit.

Ellenshaw Under Glass is available in two editions – standard and deluxe – the latter being a slipcased edition with a novel cover that provides a fitting visual pun for the book’s wry title. Copies of this limited-edition work may be purchased online at www.ellenshaw.com.

As production designer and miniature effects supervisor on The Black Hole, Peter Ellenshaw shares a light moment with his son, Harrison Ellenshaw, who served as matte effects artist on the film.

As production designer and miniature effects supervisor on The Black Hole, Peter Ellenshaw shares a light moment with his son, Harrison Ellenshaw, who served as matte effects artist on the film.

Photos copyright © Disney Enterprises.

Cinefex Vault #2: Cold Mountain

Cinefex Vault - Cold MountainIn this second story from the Cinefex Vault of online articles we present a journey into filmmaker Anthony Minghella’s 2003 adaptation of Charles Frazier’s Civil War era novel, Cold Mountain. Sadly, Minghella died after making only one more film, aged 54, but he had a great talent for bringing intelligent perspectives to his films, keeping epic vistas rooted in rich characters. Visual effects supervisor Dennis Lowe recalls the experience working in the trenches with Minghella on location in Romania, aided by visual embellishments at Double Negative and Framestore.


Siege Tactics – article by Joe Fordham

Confederate soldiers converge upon the Union Army in Miramax's "Cold Mountain".

Confederate soldiers converge upon the Union Army in Miramax’s “Cold Mountain”.

Visual effects supervisor Dennis Lowe reunited with filmmaker Anthony Minghella for Cold Mountain, an epic drama set during the American Civil War. Adapted by Minghella from a novel by Charles Frazier, the film told the tale of Inman (Jude Law), a wounded Confederate soldier who deserts a military hospital to embark on a long trek home, where his love, Ada (Nicole Kidman), is also struggling to survive the war.

Like Minghella’s earlier films, Cold Mountain emphasized characters and drama over spectacle; yet, to set the stage of a country divided by war, Minghella chose to open the film with a ferocious battle alluded to peripherally in Frazier’s book: the Union army’s attempt to capture a Confederate stronghold in Petersburg, Virginia, by tunneling under enemy lines and detonating bombs from below, to devastating effect.

For a scene in which Union soldiers tunnel under a Confederate stronghold and detonate it from below, on-set pyrotechnics by physical effects supervisor Trevor Wood were augmented with CG people, debris and fireballs at Double Negative.

For a scene in which Union soldiers tunnel under a Confederate stronghold and detonate it from below, on-set pyrotechnics by physical effects supervisor Trevor Wood were augmented with CG people, debris and fireballs at Double Negative.

The sequence was shot on a tract of farmland outside Bucharest, Romania, bulldozed and landscaped to match 19th-century reference photographs. “The siege had to look awe-inspiring,” said Dennis Lowe, “but a lot of it was achieved at the location, with physical effects, then subtly enhanced with visual effects.” Physical effects director Trevor Wood, a long-time associate of Neil Corbould Special Effects, oversaw practical carnage for the siege, using more than 250 gallons of fuel and 200 pounds of explosives to simulate the excavation of a crater 170 feet by 80 feet, and 50 feet deep. “They couldn’t physically pack all that energy into an area that was really that size; so Trevor’s team detonated a circle of about 20 charges, which looked like a bigger explosion than it was.”

Anthony Minghella directs a crowd of extras costumed as Union Army soldiers.

Anthony Minghella directs a crowd of extras costumed as Union Army soldiers.

Director of photography John Seale covered the explosion with four cameras, with a second unit in the trench. Lowe supplied five additional spring-wound Eyemo newsreel ‘crash cameras,’ positioned closer to the blast. The explosion was captured in one take, then enhanced with digital effects. Double Negative blended practical elements of exploding mud and 3D animation. “We wanted to emphasize the scale of the practical explosion,” Lowe explained. “We added CG flying bodies, horses, carts and barrels blowing out; but it was never overemphasized. Anthony wanted the effects to be almost subliminal. Early on, we added as many people as would have been located in that part of the trench and had them fly up 300 feet; but that looked a little over the top, so we layered them into the explosion, covered by foreground mud.”

The Union Army attempts to capture a Confederate stronghold.

The Union Army attempts to capture a Confederate stronghold.

Closeup angles of the ground erupting — hurling Confederates through the air and ripping the clothes from one soldier’s body — used practical effects with minimal digital finessing, and editorial sleight of hand. “We took out wires and added dust and debris,” said Lowe, “but most of that was done for real, with the help of film editor Walter Murch, who was very skilled at judging how much of a shot we could use.”

Digital enhancements also included matte paintings of Petersburg extending off into the distance, and crowd replication seen in an eerie shot preceding the detonation where the camera cranes up to reveal the Yankee soldiers laying in wait, face-down in the mud. Six hundred members of the Romanian Army portrayed soldiers on the field. To expand the mass of men, the visual effects team repositioned and replicated the troops.

For scenes of Confederate troops firing on Union soldiers trapped in the blast crater, Double Negative used crowd replication techniques to multiple the number of extras, and incorporated additional smoke and muzzle flash elements.

For scenes of Confederate troops firing on Union soldiers trapped in the blast crater, Double Negative used crowd replication techniques to multiple the number of extras, and incorporated additional smoke and muzzle flash elements.

Crowd replication was used to nightmarish effect as Union troops pour into the exploded crater, then fall prey to a ‘turkey shoot’ as surviving Confederates take potshots from above. “The extras filled about 1/20th of the area of the crater,” said Lowe. “We shot the crowd in sections using the old rope trick — we threw a rope around them, moved them, then filmed them all again. We shot that as a static plate, then motion-tracked the foreground and added drifting smoke.” Smoke added to the sepia patina created by John Seale using combinations of in-camera filters and digital grading by Framestore CFC.

Filmed over three weeks, the battle set a somber tone for the picture, intercut with Inman’s memories of home. “Anthony felt the film was not about the war,” said Lowe. “He and Walter broke up the battle as the film took shape, making it more relevant to the story. It was an anti-war film, really.”

Double Negative supplied numerous subtle matte paintings, including one in which ski slopes and resorts were removed from distant mountainsides.

Double Negative supplied numerous subtle matte paintings, including one in which ski slopes and resorts were removed from distant mountainsides.

In addition to the battle, Cold Mountain‘s 176 visual effects included night sky enhancements, digital snowfall and a surreal vision in a well — a prophetic image foreshadowing Inman’s return home, inspired by an M.C. Escher print and created by digitally blending elements of Jude Law and trained crows. Digital matte paintings also enhanced environments, adding snow to areas of the Romanian landscape. “We tried not to make the matte paintings too beautiful,” commented Lowe, “because we didn’t want to draw people’s attention to the effects. The hardest thing was holding back, but that’s what Anthony wanted.

Actor Jude Law confers with director Anthony Minghella on location in Romania.

Actor Jude Law confers with director Anthony Minghella on location in Romania.

“The nice thing about Anthony is that he delegates. The first thing he said to me when I met him on The English Patient was: ‘This is your film. Treat these shots as your own.’ That was really shocking, because most directors are quite dictatorial. With Anthony, it’s like going back to film school — you’re playing, and if you make a mistake, it’s not the end of the world; you learn from it. That’s such a good way to make movies.”

Photos copyright © 2003 by Miramax Film Corporation.

Cinefex Vault #1: Angels in America

Cinefex Vault - Angels in AmericaIn the early years of the new millennium, Cinefex launched an experiment – the Cinefex Weekly Update. Readers had the option to submit email addresses and receive, every seven days, a free Cinefex mini-article, plus a column of ‘Film Clips’ highlighting effects-related news, filtered through a Cinefex perspective.

Writer Joe Fordham illuminates a corner of the Cinefex Vault.

From January through December 2004, we published 49 issues of CWU until we decided to call it a day. Sadly, the weekly turnover was not sustainable on top of our editorial workload. The CWU archive existed online for a while, but when we gave our website a shakedown, that too went the way of the dodo. Gone were all those stories – career profiles, book reviews, deleted fragments from our print articles, and new stories on productions we couldn’t fit in the magazine, including Team America: World Police, Blade Trinity, The Terminal, The Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, Kill Bill and, yes, even Catwoman.

Twelve years later, Cinefex Blog has unlocked a time capsule and resurrected a sample of those stories from the Cinefex Vault. This week, we present CWU article #1, written by our founding father Don Shay, which delves into the work of visual effects supervisor Richard Edlund on HBO’s haunting mini-series, directed by Mike Nichols, based on Tony Kushner’s epic stage production, Angels in America.


Heavenly Days – article by Don Shay

An alluring angel (Emma Thompson) visits a despairing AIDS-stricken man.

An alluring angel (Emma Thompson) visits a despairing AIDS-stricken man.

When Richard Edlund received a call from HBO asking if he was available to work on a project called Angels in America, the four-time Oscar-winning visual effects supervisor hesitated only long enough to ascertain that director Mike Nichols would be at the helm. The television miniseries, adapted by Tony Kushner from his own two-part Pulitzer Prize-winning play, was a six-hour examination of the burgeoning AIDS plague in the mid-1980s, and Edlund found himself drawn in by the treatment of the subject and the intelligence of the writing.

Edlund flew to New York, where the production was being mounted, to meet with Nichols and the producers; but ultimately a younger, less-experienced supervisor was hired instead. Three months later, however, HBO called again. The first half of the production was in the can, and Nichols was dissatisfied with the effects in progress. Would Edlund consider taking over?

Although most of the visual effects would appear in the second half of the production, the first featured a hallucination sequence in which Harper Pitt (Mary Louise Parker), the pill-popping wife of a closeted gay man, finds herself in a fantasyland Antarctica dressed with an icebound sailing ship and other oddities. The sequence, filmed on a greenscreen stage, had been poorly designed from an effects standpoint. “They had built a miniature ship that was maybe ten feet long — not very detailed — and they had just put it on the floor of the Angels in Americaset,” said Edlund. “Of course, it looked like a miniature sitting on the floor of the set. They even had little kids dressed up in Eskimo garb to force the perspective, but they looked like kids. Also, they were getting video dailies, rather than film, and they couldn’t tell that there were focus problems.”

Edlund took the sequence to R!OT in Santa Monica, where Michele Moen, who had worked for him at Boss Film Corporation, was now visual effects art director and lead painter. “Michele has a great eye,” Edlund asserted, “and I needed someone whose aesthetic sense I could trust.” Working with unsteady plate photography for a lead-in shot that craned up from a New York sidewalk and then descended on the Antarctic setting, Edlund and the R!OT team produced a digital painting-enhanced transition, then went on to rebuild the subsequent sequence. “We had to get rid of the ship model, so we rotoed the actors whenever they walked in front of it and painted in all the backgrounds — including the ship, which gave the sequence some visual interest.”

Director Mike Nichols examines practical angel wings on a greenscreen stage.

Director Mike Nichols examines practical angel wings on a greenscreen stage.

The show’s most flamboyant effects come when AIDS patient Prior Walter (Justin Kirk) is visited by an angel (Emma Thompson) who crashes through his bedroom ceiling and hovers above him. Thompson was fitted with enormous feathered wings and flown practically on the set via a custom-built rig. “It was better to shoot Emma with the wings on the set, rather than put the wings on later,” said Edlund. “There was a lot of smoke on the set, and shards of light, which would have made it difficult to add the wings after the fact.”

To spare the actress the discomfort of hanging her on wires for multiple days of filming, the special effects crew suspended Thompson, upright, on a bicycle seat rigged to move her up and down and side to side as she hovered and delivered her lines. Fans on the set blew her hair and costume. R!OT did extensive roto and paint work to remove the mechanical flying rig and cables used to support both the rig and the rhythmically flapping wings.

Director Mike Nichols confers with actress Emma Thompson.

Director Mike Nichols confers with actress Emma Thompson.

The sequence climaxes, as it were, with the female angel seducing the gay man as they hover slightly apart in midair. Flames sear the garments off both characters in discreet head-and-shoulders shots requiring the digital team to burn 3D clothing from the undraped performers. Wide shots of the naked figures in orgasmic frenzy featured Justin Kirk and an Emma Thompson body double. “We made castings of the actors and built body pans so they could lie on their sides, facing each other, and be shot in profile from above,” said Edlund, “with the floor painted green beneath them.” Edlund photographed Thompson in closeup, then turned the material over to the R!OT crew, which replaced the body double’s head with the actress.’ “I had shot Justin and the body double a few feet apart, so they could move their arms around, but they were pushed closer together in the composite and their arms were rotoed where they overlapped. We incorporated some orgasmic body action, since the actors couldn’t do any of that in the rigid body pans, and layered in fire elements and the angel’s wings, which were shot separately.”

Director of photography Stephen Goldblatt with the angel wing rig on set.

Director of photography Stephen Goldblatt with the angel wing rig on set.

Late in the film, Prior pays a visit to Heaven, a cross between modern-day San Francisco and the remnants of ancient Rome, run by angelic bureaucrats. The principal action was photographed at Hadrian’s Villa, a 2,000-year-old structure outside Rome, which was enhanced with digitally painted backgrounds. “Mike wanted to impart visually that this was a bureaucratic, dysfunctional place,” recalled Edlund. “We were talking about how to do that, and I said: ‘Remember Orson Welles’ The Trial, where there was a room filled with this vast typing pool?’ And he said, ‘Exactly!’ So they got 60 desks equipped with old Olivettis and Underwoods, and a bunch of angels in gray suits with little wings. We multiplied them eight or ten times by shooting tiles, then comping them into the background.”

Working with an acclaimed director on a prestigious, high-profile project was a heavenly experience for Richard Edlund. “It was a rare opportunity to be involved in something other than a bubblegum movie,” Edlund commented. “Mike Nichols and the actors were terrific. Angels in America is one of my all-time favorite filmmaking experiences.”

Photo copyrights © 2003 by HBO, © 2016 by Cinefex.

VFX Q&A – “Crimson Peak” Titles

"Crimson Peak" titles - Cinefex VFX Q&A

Master of the macabre, filmmaker Guillermo del Toro, recently took cinemagoers on his latest foray into modern horror, unlocking the doors on a Gothic haunted house fantasy in Universal Pictures’ and Legendary Pictures’ Crimson Peak.

In the upcoming Cinefex 144, we will be delving deep into the supernatural goings-on of the film – speaking with señor del Toro, visual effects supervisor Dennis Berardi, makeup effects supervisor David Martí, special effects supervisor Laird McMurray and other key crewmembers, including artists at Toronto visual effects studio Mr. X.

Before you pull up your chair by the fireplace with your winter issue, we will set the scene – spoiler free – with Ron Gervais, creative director of IAMSTATIC, who with creative director Dave Greene and production company TOPIX realized the elegant title sequence that closes out the film.

Watch the complete Crimson Peak title sequence:

What is the typical relationship between a title design team and a feature film production, and how did that work with Crimson Peak?

The process varies from filmmaker to filmmaker and the nature of the project. There are films that use titles as cool backgrounds for nameplates, or a punch intro to grab the audience’s attention, which is sometimes all that’s needed. Alternatively, there are directors who embrace the full power of titles and use them to add another layer to their films. Guillermo del Toro is obviously a director that likes to inject meaning and substance into every nook and cranny of his work. With Crimson Peak you feel as if every element has been carefully considered and mulled over, so with these titles we wanted to try best to bring that same approach to our work.

Original storyboard for the "Crimson Peak" title sequence.

Original storyboard for the “Crimson Peak” title sequence.

Guillermo has mentioned that, stylistically, the film is a throwback to a classic style of filmmaking – when you began your title sequence design, was the film developed enough for you to get a sense of that, and how did you select visual elements that complimented the story?

When we were first approached to create a treatment for Crimson Peak, we hadn’t seen a single image. We were give a copy of the script and we found a few pictures of the actors on set via the Internet. The script really resonated with us and fortunately we were able to capture the right tone in our treatment and frames. The film has a very strong visual motif, and one of our earliest notes was that moths, butterflies and vines were key elements.  The house itself is a crucial character in the film and acts as a perfect backdrop. Combining these two elements we were able to create a guided tour through a series of vignettes that act as a concentrated overview of the story.

IAMSTATIC gathered a wide range of research material, as well as referencing actual props used in the film.

IAMSTATIC gathered a wide range of research material, as well as referencing actual props used in the film.

Your breakdown video shows that all the imagery in your sequence was computer generated – did the filmmakers provide you with elements, and did you try to capture the feel of Tom Sanders’ production design and Dan Laustsen’s photography?

Once we set off making the titles, we had only a few cleared images from the film to use as reference. Later in the process, we did have the pleasure of being shipped two large crates of movie props – everything from large drapes, beautiful wardrobe pieces, old picture and books to intricate frames with bugs pinned in them. So we were able to add to our initial designs by hand-selecting objects that would make sense for each title screen. There ended up being a large list of CG props in the end, which made it fun to arrange the set pieces.

Watch IAMSTATIC’s breakdown video of the Crimson Peak main title sequence:

To compliment the huge sets that they built for the film, Mr. X created a very detailed digital model of Allerdale Hall, inside and out – did they share that with you, and were you accurate to that layout?

Yes, we were fortunate enough to get the beautiful exterior model of Allerdale Hall from Mr. X, which made it much easier to have continuity with the film and allowed us to incorporate it into our own world for the titles. It also saved us an incredible amount of work so we are very grateful for that. The interior shots were custom built by us, and our team at Topix, so we could create our own bespoke scenes, or vignettes.  We were not as concerned with being ‘accurate’ to the actual rooms seen in the film and instead focused more on using composition and lighting to capture the overall mood of the film.

CP-Max-Scene-01

Visual effects supervisor Dennis Berardi’s credit contains a telling story detail, which we won’t elaborate on here for spoiler reasons — but it made me wonder, did you choreograph your shots to particular credits?

Absolutely. Every object placed in our sets has some meaning and relationship to the characters, or crew highlighted in each title. The titles for Mia Wasikowska, Jessica Chastain and the other actors have strong messaging about their characters’ struggles, while costume designer Kate Hawley shows objects related to her craft, and film editor Bernat Vilaplana is paired with a wall of framed paintings. They each get wrapped with iconography from the film. As Guillermo del Toro said, “We used the titles to underline and add narrative to the film.”

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Can you take us through your animation process, and how much input you had with Guillermo and Bernat on pace and timing?

The process was incredibly smooth. We chose a “temp” music track that we felt matched the tone of the film, and used that as our guide. As we began doing previs animation, we would often sit with the director and talk about tweaks to the pacing and edit based on its relationship with the film.

"Crimson Peak" titles - Cinefex VFX Q&A

Del Toro is very well versed in the whole process of animation and CG, and it was nice not to get bogged down looking at the work in its rough state. We could really focus on making the flow of the cameras and edit match his vision. He also knows his bugs! So if we had a butterfly moving or bending in a strange way he would point that out immediately.

Wax seal lighting setup (top) and final shot (bottom).

Wax seal lighting setup (top) and final shot (bottom).

Was it normal to have so long, in this case five months, to create a title sequence?

No, I don’t think that it’s the norm, but honestly we used every minute of it. I think that knowing how much blood, sweat and tears was being put into this film pushed us to match the same effort. Often, in certain projects, things can become overworked if given too much time and revised to many times; but in this case we relished the opportunity to add a level of detail that we are not usually afforded. It was great.

As a film is ending, many modern audience members can’t seem to wait to light up their phones and bolt for the exits – have you observed if people stick around to appreciate the artistry that you put into this sequence?

We have seen the film twice and we have noticed that with any Guillermo del Toro film, most people are there to see every inch of the imagery, and they know that he would put importance on the titles craft as well. We also locked the doors so they had no choice :)

"Crimson Peak" title sequence

Crimson Peak is now playing in theatres. Look for our full feature in Cinefex 144, in December.

Thanks to Universal Pictures, Bette Einbinder, Ron Gervais, Dave Greene.

Kubrick’s Aries 1B

Sunday morning, Deadline Hollywood broke the news:

Academy Museum Buys Rare ‘2001: A Space Odyssey’ Model For $344,000

"2001" key art by Robert McCall © Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

“2001” key art by Robert McCall © Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

Fans were stunned. As any Stanley Kubrick aficionado will tell you, it has long been legend that all the spaceship miniatures from Kubrick’s landmark science fiction film were destroyed after filming at the filmmaker’s request, to prevent recycling in cheap imitations. Could this be the real McCoy?

Before the facts were known, a small studio in El Segundo, California, became mecca for a pilgrimage of visual effects professionals who arrived to gaze in awe at the Aries 1B – the spherical trans-lunar spaceship from 2001: A Space Odyssey – that, miraculously, had been found after 47 years in obscurity.

The miniature was up for auction and the curator, Premiere Props, welcomed guests to verify the find. Facebook images began appearing of spectators posing with the ship — Dennis Muren, Greg Jein, Matthew Gratzner, Ian Hunter, Shannon Gans, Dave Jones, Bruce Logan, Pat McClung, Harrison Ellenshaw, Peter Anderson, Bill Taylor, André Bustanoby, Gene Kozicki, Rob McFarlane, Ted Rae, Dan Winters, John Goodson and Kim Smith (and guest appearances, by phone, from Douglas Trumbull and Steve Gawley). The general consensus: the miniature was real.

The AMPAS Museum of Motion Pictures eventually acquired the ship for a princely sum. Prior to finalizing the sale, event organizer Dan Levin allowed Visual Effects Society Archive Committee co-chair Gene Kozicki and VFX artist André Bustanoby to a make detailed photographic record of the ship; and Gene shared the experience with Cinefex:

“I have to admit that when I first heard that the Aries-1B filming model was up for sale at a local auction house, I was skeptical. Model makers, prop makers, and costumers have been making replicas of key items for years and quite often they show up in an auction as the authentic item, only to be ‘de-bunked’ later. At first I thought that would be the (unfortunate) case here.  But the photos and story had a ring of authenticity to them and I figured it was worth seeing it in person.

“Upon first examination, the model appeared to be in pretty good shape. It was covered in thick layer of dirt and dust, but structurally it was sound and aside from the landing gear shrouds, was largely intact.  It was what I expected a model that was made in 1966 to look like. The story that the auctioneer provided about how the consignor obtained it lined up somewhat with the story I had been told by Dave Larson (who’s researched the making of 2001 extensively and has worked with Doug Trumbull on presentations). 

Photo courtesy Gene Kozicki

Aries 1B – photo courtesy Gene Kozicki

“Within about five minutes of looking it over, I was pretty much convinced it was the genuine filming model and not a replica. What clinched it for me was a phone conversation that I had with Doug Trumbull just after I left the auction house. He mentioned details about the nature of some of the materials – something that wasn’t readily apparent in photos. (Some of the panel detailing was done with thin metal foils cut to shape. The foils featured a subtle embossed texture that don’t really show up on film but can be seen up close with the naked eye. Doug said they used that material because it looked like quilted insulation.) The model was built as a one-off using some pretty heavy-duty industrial model making techniques. The body is thick acrylic and fiberglass. The landing gears are a combination of steel and brass. The model parts are individually glued on – not castings. (This lack of shortcuts played no small role in its survival. I’ve seen younger filming models in worse shape due to ‘modern’ materials and the need to get it done quickly and cheaply.)

“From a design aesthetic, all of the models in 2001 were so unlike anything we had seen before that it helped sell the concept of a believable future. Up until that time, space travel and lunar landings were done in ships that looked far more elegant that practical. Buck Rogers and Flash Gordon journeyed into space standing up. The public had seen a few real launches and it was clear that the way we were going to get into space was not the way our fathers had envisioned it. In 2001, space travel wasn’t fantasy, it was plausible. In fact, it was mundane. Doctor Floyd (William Sylvester) sleeps most of his way to the Space Station and the moon. They have stewardesses and receptionists just sitting there, reading a magazine. In 2001, space travel was boring. That I think made it far more realistic than anything we had seen prior. And that’s why it still holds up.

Photo courtesy Gene Kozicki

Aries 1B detail – photo courtesy Gene Kozicki.

“So how did this thing get here? A lot of the stories surrounding the filming of 2001 have grown to legend or myth status, probably due to time and the fact that the director was Stanley Kubrick. The ‘myth’ states that Kubrick ordered everything destroyed in order to prevent cheap imitations from beating 2001 to the screen. The reality appears to be far more mundane. Like most movies, post-production ran longer than expected and during this period the models were just stored away — either on a stage or in a building at M-G-M’s Borehamwood studio, in England. And they stayed there even after the film was released in 1968. Why? Probably because it was easier to just leave the stuff there than figure out what to do with it. 

“Finally, at some point in the early/mid 1970’s, M-G-M finally decided to clear the material out.  Kubrick was offered the models but reportedly refused. (Obviously the logistics involved in moving and storing them were considerable.  With the ‘small’ Discovery model being around 15 feet long and the ‘large’ Discovery being 54 feet long, it would require several trucks and a large shed to store them.)  But I think there’s something else we should consider — by the time this reportedly happened (mid-70’s), Stanley Kubrick had tried to get Napoleon off the ground, directed A Clockwork Orange, and was working on Barry Lyndon. Given Kubrick’s tendency to go ‘all in’ on a given film, it seems reasonable to me that he simply wasn’t interested in anything from one of his (by then) old films.

“Over the years, there were rumors that some of the models survived. In fact, the Aries 1B, along with the Orion Clipper (the ‘Pan-Am’ ship), and the Moonbus were thought to have been set aside for Kubrick to claim. But we’ve also ‘heard’ that the Moonbus was taken home by a crew member and eventually suffered an ignominious fate at the hands of that crew member’s son and some fireworks. And of course, there were the photos of Space Station V rotting in a field. The problem with all of this was that the only evidence we had as to the fate of the models were those photos – and those photos supported the ‘myth’ that everything had been destroyed. (Despite the fact there was no mention of any of the other models being in that same field.) Now that the Aries has shown up, obviously that lends at least some credence to some of the models being put to one side. (And if they were put to one side for Kubrick, how did the consignor get his hands on the Aries?)  Hopefully, this discovery will allow new research and we can get a better picture of what happened.

Aries 1B miniature construction, 1966.

Special effects technician Rodney Fuller (R) attends to the Aries 1B at Borehamwood, 1966. Image courtesy Matte Shot © Hawk Films / M-G-M.

“As this item was coming up for auction, we really didn’t know where it would end up, or if we would ever be granted access again. Premiere Props’ owner Dan Levin allowed us to come in and document the model several times. It was his hope that if enough industry people saw it and talked about it, it would remove any lingering doubts from people’s minds that this was the real thing. (He was skeptical at first, too.) Additionally, Dan recognized the significance of the prop and wanted to make sure it wound up in some institution that would not only restore it but display it. We all recognized that it had a unique story apart from the basic fact that it was used in a movie.

“Joining us in examining the model were John Goodson from ILM, model maker Greg Jein, the folks at New Deal Studios, visual effects designer Dennis Muren — and everyone else who saw it was almost giddy that this thing survived. André Bustanoby and I set up tracking markers and took photos from all sides, and inside.

“With the removal of the hardware that controlled the landing gear, we noticed that the model was sitting a bit lower than what was seen on screen. The landing gears still move, albeit manually. The main part of the body appears to be made from a blown plexiglass dome about 30 inches in diameter. The endoscope was a handy gadget I picked up at a hardware store that transmits imagery to your iPad or cell phone via an app. I got it to see inside the guts of the model. I was curious to see if any of the landing gear linkages were still inside the model. (Like Al Capone’s vault, it was empty.) I was also trying to see if the mount points for the model were still intact. The last thing we wanted to see happen was the model get damaged as it was being moved back into its shipping crate. Thankfully, the mounts and inner structure appear to be in good condition. The Academy will have to come up with some way to mount it securely — I wouldn’t want to rely on a 50 year old mount point as the sole method of support. But it seems sturdy enough to get it into a crate and to a facility where it can be examined further.

“Given the influence of 2001 and all the legends surrounding the making of the film, the significance of this model cannot be overstated.  This is the equivalent of someone discovering Orson Welles’ cut of The Magnificent Ambersons or Dorothy’s ruby red slippers from The Wizard of Oz. 2001 set the bar very high — without 2001 and the contributions of the artists that worked on the visual effects, we wouldn’t have Star Wars, Blade Runner, The Matrix, or Interstellar. I am very pleased that the Motion Picture Academy is the new custodian of this iconic artifact and I hope that its eventual display will inspire future storytellers as much as it has inspired ourselves.”

Gene Kozicki, André Bustanoby, Harrison Ellenshaw and the Aries 1B. Photo courtesy Dan Levin.

Gene Kozicki, André Bustanoby, Harrison Ellenshaw and the Aries 1B. Photo courtesy Dan Levin.

Special thanks to Brian Johnson and to Peter Cook at Matte Shot.