About Graham Edwards

I'm senior staff writer at Cinefex magazine. I also write novels. In a former life, I produced animated films for theme park rides and science centres. If you offer me a cold beer, I won't say no.

VIEW Conference 2019 Preview

The first batch of speakers has been announced for this year’s VIEW Conference, due to take place 21-25 October, 2019, in Turin, Italy.

Cinefex readers will immediately recognise the name Rob Legato, veteran visual effects supervisor whose track record includes features such as Apollo 13, Titanic, Avatar and The Jungle Book. Rob will come to the conference fresh from the release of this year’s remake of The Lion King, and ready to talk about the film’s behind-the-scenes secrets.

Also speaking at the conference is ILM animation supervisor Hal Hickel, Captain Marvel additional visual effects supervisor Janelle Croshaw Ralla, and Image Engine visual effects supervisor Thomas Schelesny and animation supervisor Jason Snyman, who recently completed work on Game of Thrones Season 8. Other key speakers include prolific composer Michael Giacchino, writer/director Brad Bird and directors Dean DeBlois and Conrad Vernon, plus a host of big names from the fields of animation, virtual reality and games.

With the list of speakers set to grow over the coming months, conference director Dr. Maria Elena Gutierrez said, “I’m excited to reveal a stellar group of speakers who are the top professionals in their fields. I know they will educate, collaborate with, and inspire our attendees. I look forward to welcoming them to Torino and to our VIEW Conference community.”

Just like last year, Cinefex will be at VIEW Conference 2019, interviewing the key speakers and reporting back through the week. Watch this blog for all the news and updates. You’ll find our comprehensive coverage of The Lion King and Game of Thrones Season 8 in Cinefex 166, out August and available to preorder now.

VIEW Conference 2019 takes place 21-25 October, 2019, at OGR (Officine Grandi Riparazioni), Turin, Italy. Visit the official VIEW Conference website to book your place now.

Spotlight – Spencer Cook

To create cinematic illusions, you need conjurors. In this series of spotlight interviews, we ask movie magicians what makes them tick.

Spencer Cook is animation director at DNEG, having worked previously at companies including MPC, Framestore, Sony Pictures Imageworks and Tippett Studio. Ask him for his filmography highlights and here’s what he’ll give you: Godzilla: King of the Monsters, Alien: Covenant, Beauty and the Beast (2017), Gods of Egypt, Men in Black 3, all three Sam Raimi Spider-Man films, Cursed, The Matrix Reloaded, The Matrix Revolutions, Hollow Man, Blade and Pee Wee’s Playhouse.

Spencer Cook

CINEFEX: How did you get started in the business, Spencer?

SPENCER COOK: Animation was a hobby when I was a kid. I grew up watching monster movies like King Kong, Godzilla, all the classic Universal monsters and basically anything fantasy, horror and sci-fi. I was particularly inspired by the works of Ray Harryhausen.

By age 11, I was experimenting with stop-motion animation and had decided I wanted to make my living as a stop-motion animator. I studied all aspects of film, video and fine arts at The School Of Visual Arts in New York City where I graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree, after which I began my career as a stop-motion animator. For the next decade, I animated and directed dozens of television commercials in New York, Los Angeles and Europe, animating classic characters like the Pillsbury Doughboy and segments of the Saturday morning series Pee Wee’s Playhouse.

I then moved to Los Angeles and began a new chapter in my career working on movies. By that time, the industry had changed from traditional animation to digital. Luckily, all my stop-motion experience applied to digital character animation, so it was just a matter of learning a new tool. This transition wasn’t easy for me at first – I wasn’t very familiar with computers – but eventually I got the hang of it and started to enjoy all the amazing possibilities.

CINEFEX: What aspect of your job makes you grin from ear to ear?

SPENCER COOK: I like the collaborative nature of filmmaking, working with a team and mixing the best ideas together. The creative process isn’t like following a recipe; it takes experimentation and exploration. I like the process of figuring out performances and body language. Every project is different and requires a process of discovery.

I enjoy looking back at previous generations of animators and visual effects artists and appreciating that I’m continuing the cinematic legacy of creating fantastic settings and characters. I’m thrilled to be a part of the movie industry, contributing to images that might be inspiring the next generation of animators.

CINEFEX: And what makes you sob uncontrollably?

SPENCER COOK: I hate the terms ‘CG’ or ‘CGI.’ I wish we could remove these from our lexicon. Saying ‘computer graphics’ or ‘computer generated images’ makes it sound like a computer does the work.

These terms seemed odd to me when I first transitioned from stop-motion to digital animation, but it really hit me a few years ago when I was reading an article about Pirates of the Caribbean. The article said something like, “Johnny Depp stands in front of a greenscreen and the computer adds the background.” I was like, “No, this is wrong! This isn’t how things work in animation and visual effects!”

Computers don’t create images any more than a paintbrush creates a painting. A computer is a tool. Would you call The Mona Lisa a ‘paintbrush generated image?’ Talented artists and technicians create the images in movies. It’s the same as it was in the beginning of cinema, we just use a different tools now. Calling it ‘CGI’ minimizes our creativity and hard work.

I know the term is deeply embedded in the industry but I think a better option is ‘digital modelling,’ ‘digital compositing,’ and so on. This would be consistent with all other art forms that refer to the medium instead of the tool, such as ‘oil painting’ or ‘marble sculpture.’ In animation, we broadly specify traditional techniques as ‘stop-motion animation’ and ‘cel animation.’ Why not just add ‘digital animation’ to that? It’s clear. It’s simple. It’s right.

See Spencer Cook’s recent work as senior animation supervisor at MPC in the final trailer for Godzilla: King of the Monsters:

CINEFEX: What’s the most challenging task you’ve ever faced?

SPENCER COOK: Wow, it’s a challenge to pick just one! Every production has unique difficulties to overcome and problems to solve.

One of my most formative challenges was the wall-crawl shot in the first Sam Raimi Spider-Man movie. I was the lead animator at Sony Pictures Imageworks in Los Angeles with Anthony LaMolinara as our animation supervisor and John Dykstra as visual effects designer. We were tasked with creating a photoreal Spider-Man for the first time. At that time I was still fairly new to digital animation, so while working on that movie I learned a lot about animating on a computer, as well as client interactions and the movie biz in general.

The wall-crawl was incredibly difficult. The shot was hundreds of frames long and the camera moved all around the character as he climbed. I spent many long hours working on Spidey’s physics and body language to make it as believable as possible and to see his thought process, while mixing in the iconic poses from the comics.

I learned a lot about how to use reference, how to mix reality and fantasy into a believable performance. I gathered footage of spiders, frogs and lizards, and even went to a local park with our coordinator to shoot video of me climbing a chainlink fence! That was one of the key components that helped me find the reality in that shot. To get a feel for the grip and the pull against gravity, what it felt like to climb a vertical surface, was incredibly important to my final animation.

Spencer Cook on the set of "Alien: Covenant."
Spencer Cook on the set of “Alien: Covenant.”

CINEFEX: And what’s the weirdest task?

SPENCER COOK: Superheroes and giant monsters aren’t weird to me. What I did find really weird was working on television commercials. As animators, we need to think about a character’s thought process, but many of the stop-motion commercials I animated involved anthropomorphized food like the Pillsbury Doughboy or various other happy, dancing snack foods. I admit that this is way over-thinking the concept, but I always thought it was weird that a living creature would be so happy about being eaten. Living snack food is at the bottom of the food chain. They only exist to be eaten and yet they’re thrilled about it. They’re either unaware of their situation or completely insane! This was the kind of stuff we talked about when I was animating television commercials. It was twisted fun!

CINEFEX: What changes have you observed in your field over the years?

SPENCER COOK: One of the biggest changes I’ve noticed is the mainstream acceptance of genre movies. It used to be that monster movies and superhero movies were for kids. I think this was because of the limitations of traditional techniques – the visuals weren’t always realistic enough for a mainstream audience.

I feel like today we’re in a new golden age of genre cinema. Digital tools allow us to create fantastic images and characters with more realism than ever before. I think that’s why these kinds of movies are now acceptable to mainstream audiences and not just confined to genre fans. Plus, filmmakers now take this material seriously. Along with advances in make-up, costumes and stunts, the sci-fi and fantasy genre is now much more accepted than in previous generations.

Another big change I’ve noticed is the number of people involved in animation and visual effects. When I started in stop-motion it was a smaller community, most of whom got into animation as fans of either Ray Harryhausen or Disney movies. Today there are animators from every part of the globe who got into animation in many different ways. It adds a great diversity to our animation teams. I frequently encounter great ideas for shots and poses from my team that I never would have thought of.

CINEFEX: And what changes would you like to see?

SPENCER COOK: As much as we’re all used to it, I don’t like the crude interfaces we use to work on computers. A mouse and keyboard is unintuitive and archaic. Wacom tablets are a little better but, as a former stop-motion animator, I just want to grab the puppet and pose it. I feel our current technology forces me to conform to the computer’s way of understanding input rather than the computer adapting to my human way of moving.

Maybe virtual reality or augmented reality will help us advance in this area. I recently visited the National Film Board of Canada here in Montreal. They’re researching and developing tech that could help artists interact with computers in a way that’s more comfortable and intuitive. However, most studios are reluctant to invest in new tech like this. It would be expensive at first and the learning curve for the team would add to the cost of production at a time when most studios are looking for ways to cut costs.

Spencer Cook works with Phil Tippett on the independent stop-motion short "Mad God."
Spencer Cook works with Phil Tippett on the independent stop-motion short “Mad God.”

CINEFEX: What advice would you give to someone starting out in the business?

SPENCER COOK: Learning to use a computer is easy. Learning to bring a character to life is hard.

Pay attention to life. Study how people move and interact. Those kinds of human qualities are the difference between a character that’s moving and a character that’s alive. As artists, we need to see things that most people take for granted.

Use reference as much as possible. YouTube is an amazing animation library but be smart about how you use it. Don’t just copy or roto one to one – unless that’s the direction. Mix in moments from the reference with your own poses. Make aesthetic choices consistent with the style or tone of the movie.

Act out the shot yourself. It’s important to get a feel for the action or performance. Even if it’s something so fantastic a person could never do it, there’s still value in acting it out. You may find a little human moment amid the spectacle that can bring your shot to life.

I think it’s also important to love movies and have an appreciation of cinematic history. Animators should have a good understanding of the visual language of cinema – camera angles, continuity and editing, lighting, and the basic structure of cinematic storytelling.

CINEFEX: If you were to host a mini-festival of your three favorite effects movies, what would you put on the bill, and why?

SPENCER COOK: It’s hard to only pick three – there are so many films that have inspired me. But these three are standouts for portraying monsters with personalities.

King Kong (1933) – The original King Kong is top of the list. I was spellbound when I first saw it as a kid – I think I was around eight years old. I didn’t know what I was seeing, I had no concept of stop-motion animation or visual effects but I knew this was something special.

The incredible pioneering achievements in animation, miniatures, matte painting and optical effects cannot be overstated. This movie laid the foundation for all cinematic visual effects and animation to come, and the work we do today stands on its shoulders. But it’s not just a milestone in animation and visual effects – it’s one of the most iconic movies in cinema history. Who doesn’t recognize Kong fighting the T-rex or Kong atop the Empire State building? Also, this isn’t a mindless monster smashing through a city. The story is mythic and dramatic. Motivated by beauty, Kong has a personality, a goal and great pathos.

The 7th Voyage of Sinbad – all of Ray Harryhausen’s work is immensely influential to me but 7th Voyage stands out. Ray’s incredible artistry was light years ahead of anything else being done at that time. His creature design and the way he added little quirks of body language gave each of his creatures a distinct personality.

The standout sequences are when Sinbad and his crew encounter the Cyclops on the beach, and then later when the Cyclops captures some of the crew and begins cooking them for his dinner. The Cyclops has a personality and a thought process that Ray conveys wonderfully through body language. Another standout is the sword fight between Sinbad and a skeleton. The technical achievement is impressive and Ray’s distinctive choices for posing really bring the fight to life.

War of The Gargantuas – one of the best non-Godzilla Toho monster movies is this story about brothers. It just so happens the two brothers are giant monsters. The brown Gargantua – the good one – is a gentle giant who lives in the forest. The green Gargantua – the evil one – lives in the ocean and eats people.

This was a traditional Toho production with the same crew as the Godzilla movies. The Gargantua designs were more ape-like than most Toho Kaiju, allowing for more expression. The two suit actors did an amazing job of portraying each brother with a distinct personality through body language. A standout sequence is the terrifying first appearance of the green Gargantua when he attacks a fishing trawler at night during a storm. Another is the final fight – a mythic brother versus brother scenario played out as an epic battle smashing through Tokyo. The tragic ending makes their war all the more poignant.

CINEFEX: What’s your favorite movie theater snack?

SPENCER COOK: I like Dibs – chocolate covered ice cream bites – but Montreal cinemas don’t have them!

CINEFEX: Spencer, thanks for your time!

Spotlight – Gong Myung Lee

To create cinematic illusions, you need conjurors. In this series of spotlight interviews, we ask movie magicians what makes them tick.

Gong Myung Lee is a visual effects supervisor at Method Studios, and includes the following in her career highlights: Triple Frontier, Deadpool 2, Black Panther, The Defenders, The Get Down, American Horror Story, Billy Lynn’s Long Halftime Walk, The Finest Hours, The Strain, Vikings, Narcos, and Marco Polo.

Gong Myung LeeCINEFEX: How did you get started in the business, Myung?

GONG MYUNG LEE: I was clearly an artist at heart. My college roommates were happy to have our apartment decorated with my paintings and I even made money on the side painting portraits. However, I studied political science, international relations and economics, believing I wanted to follow in my father’s footsteps and become a diplomat. After college, I worked in corporate law but felt restless and craved a creative outlet.

I took a continuing education course called “Computer Animation Theory.” It was a mind-blowing combination of art, physics, math, and programming that I soaked up like a sponge. At this point I decided to change my career. I got my MFA and, within three years, I co-directed and completed an animated short called Cold War, which did well in the festival circuits and the student academy. From there I landed an internship at Nickelodeon Digital – this was when they had a 3D team. I wanted to do rigging, but they were looking for lighting artists at the time. I insisted that I could do the job and spent countless days and nights doing just that. As a closet fine-artist and painter, all aspects of lighting theory and compositing maths suited me well.

I moved to fast-paced broadcast commercials at Charlex and, within a few years, I had worked on a few hundred commercials. I continued to have supervising roles at The Mill, and then moved to Mr.X Gotham, where I had the opportunity to build the studio and work on numerous television episodics and features. I’m at Method Studios in New York today, doing a blend of commercials, episodics, and features work.

CINEFEX: What aspect of your job makes you grin from ear to ear?

GONG MYUNG LEE: I love working with a great team that you know you can trust. I’m highly collaborative and expect all members of the team to bring their best to the table. If you can work with a team like that, where you can also learn from each other and continually grow, anything is possible.

CINEFEX: And what makes you sob uncontrollably?

GONG MYUNG LEE: It makes me so sad to see images break. That means working without regard to gamut, non-linear workflows, working in display space – color workflows that throw away the beautiful range of the original footage. As a visual effects professional, I believe the products we create have to be of excellent quality inside and out. It’s amazing when the visual effects we add look like everything was shot native in-camera. Quality is something that clients generally don’t think about, but maintaining pixel fidelity from ingest to delivery – as much as possible – is paramount to faithfully presenting the artistic spirit of the product. We need to be forward-thinking, take care every step of the process, and be aware of what’s happening to the footage from set, through visual effects, to digital intermediate, and to our audience.

CINEFEX: What’s the most challenging task you’ve ever faced?

GONG MYUNG LEE: I supervised a Dodge commercial directed by Tim Kentley in 2010 that had seven or eight characters, a car, a dog, full CG landscapes and effects. The mandate was to finish what would have taken 8-10 weeks from start to finish in one glorious week – actually five days. We agreed to this seemingly impossible task and made it through without sacrificing any of the creative aspects. I was amazed by the teamwork and final product, and very proud of everyone involved in the project. There have been many challenges since then, but this one to me was the most memorable.

CINEFEX: And what’s the weirdest task?

GONG MYUNG LEE: What happens in visual effects … stays in visual effects.

CINEFEX: What changes have you observed in your field over the years?

GONG MYUNG LEE: Advancements in technology have had a huge influence in the visual effects landscape and will continue to do so. Camera technology is at the forefront of this change. Almost everything is shot digitally now, not only for its ease of use, but also for lowering production costs.

The demand for visual effects has increased dramatically for major action effects as well as invisible effects. Technology has made it easier to apply visual effects, offering much more flexibility to filmmakers. Jobs are getting bigger, with visual effects shot numbers shooting up to the thousands, encouraging collaboration between visual effects facilities to share assets. Open Source contribution has become more active as well, and both visual effects studios and software/hardware vendors are taking notice. We are finding ways to be more efficient and consistent, in search of standards that maintain technical and creative continuity, both within individual studios and as a global network.

When I started in the field, you needed to commit to a specialty, as there was too much for one to wrap one’s head around in each discipline. For each task, a tool needed to be written by a programmer, and being a visual effects artist meant you needed to be just as technical as you were artistic. There were very few jacks-of-all-trades. Accurate global illumination render solutions were production-prohibitive due to the amount of time it took to render things, so one had to rely on the naked eye to achieve the photo-real. Today, with the latest off-the-shelf 3D software with procedural workflows, empowered by faster CPUs and GPUs, these calculations are easier to achieve. Most of the tools come built-in, or there are plugins widely available, and visual effects artists can better focus on the creative side of things. The disciplines are blending together – lighting into composition, for example – and strong generalists are emerging. The industry is moving towards a more agile, flexible, software-agnostic pipeline.

Technical advances such as cloud rendering, offline to real-time rendering, machine learning and AI are changing the way we work. The term “postproduction” may not be relevant in the future, as virtual production, performance capture systems and real-time game engines are bringing visual effects to the forefront of the filmmaking process. Real-time tracking and compositing lock the actors onto digital sets or set extensions during the shoot. The ability for directors of photography and directors to visualize with a CG environment and camera, and to receive immediate rendered feedback is quickly becoming the norm and is less invasive to the filmmaking process. It allows for a closer collaboration between visual effects and filmmakers.

Artists are able to more easily work from home, a big step towards a borderless workforce. A considerable amount of visual effects work is being outsourced internationally. A while back, any work that was done outside the facility was risky and faced numerous challenges, like differences in time zones, output levels, communication barriers and lower quality. Nowadays, with better communication and investment in global education by larger visual effects players, the level of trust in the global community is growing, providing new opportunities for growth, development of talent, and advancements in the field.

CINEFEX: And what changes would you like to see?

GONG MYUNG LEE: Visual effects will only be as good as the data we collect on set and in real life. Lack of this is what makes for much wasted time and manual labor in visual effects. I look to a future where metadata can flow smoothly from shoot to finish without it getting lost or discarded along the way. Some of this has to do with the need for tools to better collect data – camera, tracking, image-based lighting, color – but also enhanced solutions to preserve and parse them along the way. Cameras that capture depth information, devices that capture live triangulation data, and tools that capitalize on machine learning are only a few of the things I’m looking forward to.

I’d like to see more diversity. When I was starting out, I had no women role models in visual effects creative supervision. A colleague of mine once told me: “You are a unicorn!” I felt special and sad at the same time.

CINEFEX: What advice would you give to someone starting out in the business?

GONG MYUNG LEE: Listen to and trust your gut. Be relentless in your pursuit and love of visual effects. Keep an open mind and learn everything you can about your job and those of the people around you by being inquisitive, asking intelligent questions and learning every day.

CINEFEX: If you were to host a mini-festival of your three favorite effects movies, what would you put on the bill, and why?

GONG MYUNG LEE: Fight Club – I remember being amazed by the opening sequence – the camera takes you to a building, into a garage, to a van and to the bombs inside, all in one camera shot – and by the effective way visual effects was used to enhance the storytelling.

Inception – the scene where Paris folds into itself was a “wow” moment for me. The director could have chosen to make the visual effects more fantastical or abstract, but I loved how the scene’s restraint made it grounded and believable. The way the lighting was affected by the directional changes kept the cityscapes intensely photoreal.

My last choice is a tie between the performances of Gollum in The Lord of the Rings and Caesar in Dawn of the Planet of the Apes. These CG character performances, with their nuanced subtleties and emotional expressive details, have elevated visual effects to another level, thanks to Weta’s many years of motion and facial capture development and the performances of Andy Serkis.

CINEFEX: What’s your favorite movie theater snack?

GONG MYUNG LEE: Dark chocolate and pretzels.

CINEFEX: Myung, thanks for your time!

Spotlight – Sara Bennett

To create cinematic illusions, you need conjurors. In this series of spotlight interviews, we ask movie magicians what makes them tick.

Sara Bennett is co-founder of Milk, where she also works as a visual effects supervisor. Ask her to name some personal favorites from her filmography and she’ll tell you: Ex Machina, Adrift, Harry Potter, and Snow White and the Huntsman.

Sara Bennett - co-founder of Milk

CINEFEX: How did you get started in the business, Sara?

SARA BENNETT: I originally trained as a makeup artist as I was very keen to get into horror makeup. I moved to London to pursue this career and went to work for a special effects company; that’s where I first heard about visual effects. I was intrigued, so I applied for jobs as a runner and that’s how I got started. My first proper work on a film was doing roto work on Babe: Pig In The City.

CINEFEX: What aspect of your job makes you grin from ear to ear?

SARA BENNETT: Without doubt the people I work with. This job can sometimes be stressful, with antisocial hours, so working with good company and funny people helps.

CINEFEX: And what makes you sob uncontrollably?

SARA BENNETT: Working on shots for months that suddenly get cut out of the show.

CINEFEX: What’s the most challenging task you’ve ever faced?

SARA BENNETT: I think our most recent work on Adrift. We had to create a CG ocean and storm with one huge continuous shot that starts off out on the stormy sea, then continues into a capsizing boat cabin, before exiting back out underwater! It was some of the most technically challenging work we had to do, and the time we had to get it done in made it hugely challenging. But we were very happy with the end result.

Watch a breakdown video showcasing Milk’s work on Adrift:

CINEFEX: And what’s the weirdest task?

SARA BENNETT: After winning a major award, I was asked to help sell a brand of leggings by wearing them while holding the award. I politely declined!

CINEFEX: What changes have you observed in your field over the years?

SARA BENNETT: Technology has moved on so quickly. The things we can do now compared to just a few years ago are really exciting. Photoreal digital humans were impossible not so long ago, and then we see the incredible work MPC did with Sean Young in Blade Runner: 2049 and the photoreal Hugh Jackman in Logan.

CINEFEX: And what changes would you like to see?

SARA BENNETT: There is a tendency to rely more and more on visual effects. But I think it is important to balance that with shooting in camera wherever possible – or shooting real elements – and using visual effects to help tell the story only when necessary.

CINEFEX: What advice would you give to someone starting out in the business?

SARA BENNETT: Go into a company with passion and enthusiasm to learn new things. Be open to anything, as you never know what doors will open for you. What you started out wanting to do may be completely different to what you end up doing.

CINEFEX: If you were to host a mini-festival of your three favorite effects movies, what would you put on the bill, and why?

SARA BENNETT: The Matrix – I remember going to see this for the first time, with no knowledge of what it was. I came out of the cinema grinning! The bullet time effect was something we had never seen before and it still gets talked about today.

Terminator 2: Judgment Day – When I go to the cinema, I want to be entertained and come out with a smile on my face. The T-2000 chrome man was a great effect, achieved before we started using motion capture.

An American Werewolf in London – Films like this that use prosthetic makeup are the reason I got into visual effects in the first place. The werewolf transformation was awesome and horrific. It was amazing for its time and brilliantly done.

CINEFEX: What’s your favorite movie theater snack?

SARA BENNETT: Salt and sweet mixed popcorn.

CINEFEX: Sara, thanks for your time!

91st VFX Oscars Nominations Announced

2019 Oscar Nominations VFX

Five films have reached the final stage of the race to win this year’s Academy Award in the category of Best Visual Effects, as revealed today by actor/writer Kumail Nanjiani and actress/director Tracee Ellis Ross via a global live stream. The films are:

  • Avengers: Infinity War
    • Dan DeLeeuw, Kelly Port, Russell Earl, Dan Sudick
  • Christopher Robin
    • Christopher Lawrence, Michael Eames, Theo Jones, Chris Corbould
  • First Man
    • Paul Lambert, Ian Hunter, Tristan Myles, J.D. Schwalm
  • Ready Player One
    • Roger Guyett, Grady Cofer, Matthew E. Butler, David Shirk
  • Solo: A Star Wars Story
    • Rob Bredow, Patrick Tubach, Neal Scanlan, Dominic Tuohy

Cinefex Cover Montage 91st Oscar Noms

We’re proud not only to have covered four of the five nominees in Cinefex, but also to have featured them on our cover. As for the fifth film, we can only offer our humble apologies to Winnie the Pooh for not including a healthy dollop of Hundred Acre Wood honey on our editorial menu!

Voting in all nominations for the 91st Academy Awards commences on Tuesday, February 12 and continues through Tuesday, February 19. The Oscars ceremony will be held in Hollywood on Sunday, February 24, 2019, at the Dolby Theatre at Hollywood & Highland Center, and will be televised live on the ABC Television Network. The Oscars also will be televised live in more than 225 countries and territories worldwide.

For a complete list of nominees, visit the official Oscars website.

Image © Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences ® “Oscar®,” “Oscars®,” “Academy Awards®,” “Academy Award®,” “A.M.P.A.S. ®” and “Oscar Night®” are the trademarks, and the ©Oscar® statuette is the registered design mark and copyrighted property, of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.

Cinefex Quiz 2018

Yes, it’s time for this year’s grand quiz! We’ve posed one multiple choice question for every film or television show we covered during 2018, ranging from Star Wars to Game of Thrones, First Man to Aquaman. Test your knowledge now in the Cinefex Quiz 2018 … and good luck!

The Visual Effects of “Outlaw King”

Outlaw King - visual effects by Method Studios

When King Alexander III of Scotland died suddenly in the year 1286, King Edward I of England made a bid to seize the country for himself. During the bitter years of conflict that followed, Scottish freedom fighters rose up as heroes in a fight for independence, including William Wallace, portrayed by Mel Gibson in the 1995 film Braveheart.

In the feature-length Netflix drama Outlaw King, director David Mackenzie picks up the story with Robert the Bruce (Chris Pine), a claimant to the Scottish throne who led his forces to victory against the much larger English army at the Battle of Loudoun Hill in 1307. Under the direction of production visual effects supervisor Alex Bicknell, Method Studios delivered over 500 shots for Outlaw King amounting to roughly one hour of screen time, augmenting photography captured on location in Scotland and ramping up the action for the film’s battle scenes.

Outlaw King - visual effects by Method Studios

During the climactic Battle of Loudoun Hill, Bruce and his 600 soldiers use local knowledge to outwit a 5,000-strong English army. Method Studios augmented crowds of around 300 extras and 40 horses, and enhanced castle locations with historically correct architecture, weapons and props.

Outlaw King - visual effects by Method Studios

 

“This sequence was quite unusual for visual effects,” said Method Studios visual effects supervisor Dan Bethell. “Typically it’s more of a linear process, but here the sequence had about 150 shots that were all in play at the same time. We’d work on a large bulk of shots simultaneously, and with each story tweak we’d have to implement that across all the relevant shots. It was fun and collaborative, but definitely a different way of working. Our talented department leads were fabulous at keeping everything moving at a high level of quality and technical precision so that David and editor Jake Roberts could make the most informed decisions.”

Outlaw King - visual effects by Method Studios

To swell the ranks of both the Scottish and English armies, Method Studios populated the battlefield with various classes of CG soldier including archers, swordsmen and cavalry. Digital horses boasted muscle simulations, sliding skin, and authentic tack. Research ensured that clothing and armor was period-accurate, and that every faction was flying the correct flag. If plate photography contained historically inappropriate trees, artists mercilessly uprooted them.

Outlaw King - visual effects by Method Studios

Method Studios also augmented the film’s opening shot, an unbroken eight-minute take captured by director of photography Barry Ackroyd, during which King Edward’s forces attack Stirling Castle. Extending the English encampment, artists added crowds of soldiers and the gigantic Warwolf trebuchet used by the invaders to pulverize the fortress, which Method Studios constructed in digital form and then promptly demolished.

Outlaw King - visual effects by Method Studios

 

“David and Alex had a great understanding of how visual effects could enhance the historical accuracy,” said Bethell. “This helped create the believability for certain sequences when we couldn’t physically capture everything as it was in the 1300s. With so much captured on location as opposed to bluescreen, our tracking and roto departments really had their work cut out, and they did a phenomenal job giving us a foundation for the rest of the effects work.”

Outlaw King - visual effects by Method Studios

Outlaw King is now streaming worldwide on Netflix.

Spotlight – Shauna Bryan

To create cinematic illusions, you need conjurors. In this series of spotlight interviews, we ask movie magicians what makes them tick.

Shauna Bryan is vice president of new business and production executive at Sony Pictures Imageworks. She includes in her personal filmography highlights The DaVinci Code, Blades of Glory and Spider-Man: Homecoming.

Shauna BryanCINEFEX: How did you get started in the business, Shauna?

SHAUNA BRYAN: I specifically attempted to break into the Vancouver film industry, which was the closest I could get to Los Angeles, at a time when there was only a handful of television series being shot up here. Funnily enough, film people were known to work only in the summer, and ski in the winter. That was a scary prospect for me in terms of job security, but I wanted to work in film because I’m a storyteller at heart and movies have always been my main catharsis. I was determined, to say the least!

My first big break was getting a producer internship for the feature film Whale Music, directed by Richard J. Lewis, who’s now one of the main directors and a co-executive producer on Westworld. On Whale Music, I got to work closely with Richard and Raymond Massey, the producer, and be a part of the film from development right through to the end of post and the film festival launch. That was an invaluable experience, and the movie still holds up as a bit of a cult classic today.

CINEFEX: What aspect of your job makes you grin from ear to ear?

SHAUNA BRYAN: I love doing creative tests or pitches designed around a filmmaker’s vision, to prove the strength of our company and artists. I love turning perceptions on their ear and showing that a company that does animation can also do photoreal visual effects. It’s fun.

CINEFEX: And what makes you sob uncontrollably?

SHAUNA BRYAN: I don’t sob. When I was 23, I could stay up all night stressing out, but now I’m at a point in my career where I understand that things tend to change overnight and that there’s definitely always a solution.

Shauna Bryan On SetCINEFEX: What’s the most challenging task you’ve ever faced?

SHAUNA BRYAN: I was working for Rainmaker and we were awarded the entire show of Blades of Glory. We had to work out how to do full CG environments and massive crowds – on top of that, we were tasked by Dreamworks to do full CG face replacements of Jon Heder and Will Farrell that were good enough so that no one would know the actors hadn’t skated the performances themselves. If that weren’t tough enough, Jon Heder broke his leg during rehearsals, so all of the skating face replacement work was shot in August and audience previews started in October, with the same studio mandate that everyone had to believe it was really Jon and Will on the screen. Bear in mind that this was 2006, well before The Curious Case of Benjamin Button and just as complicated. It was a huge ask, but somehow we got it done and the movie is still one of my favorites today.

CINEFEX: And what’s the weirdest task?

SHAUNA BRYAN: I had to deliver green script revision pages to an executive producer who was already on a plane set to fly out of Vancouver. I literally had to run to the gate, talk my way past and get escorted to the plane to hand-deliver the revisions to the executive at his seat. I don’t think he ever even read them, but my job as an uber-executive assistant was secured!

CINEFEX: What changes have you observed in your field over the years?

SHAUNA BRYAN: I’ve seen an odd full circle forming. When I first started in visual effects, it was really only the big companies that could be trusted to do serious work. It took a long time and was expensive. Then, over the years, smaller companies came in like little fighter pilots, turning the tide and doing equally complex work, for cheaper costs. Now, with so many huge visual effects shows out there, containing complex work on fairly short schedules, quality and delivery are of utmost importance. There’s not enough render capacity, artists or production management to feed the worldwide demand, and smaller companies have had a harder time executing as expected. I’m now seeing studios checking more deeply into a company’s capacity, their robust pipeline for delivery, current artistic talent and son on, and being less focused on the lowest bid when it comes to awarding work. Not to say that costs don’t need to be competitive – because they absolutely do – but there seems to be a more holistic thoughtfulness when it comes to placing work at a facility.

CINEFEX: And what changes would you like to see?

SHAUNA BRYAN: I’d like to see more of the above, and to have stronger partnerships between a facility and a studio. There’s more than enough work to go around, so I’d love to see facilities taking on less work, but doing so with more purpose. I’d love to see studios engaging facilities earlier on, and awarding earlier so that facilities can plan and not feel like they have to take on everything that comes their way. More planning, less grabbing. I’m not sure if that’s possible, but I’d love to see it.

CINEFEX: What advice would you give to someone starting out in the business?

SHAUNA BRYAN: Absolutely go for it. The film and visual effects industry is awesome and, in an odd way, more recession-proof. People want content – there’s more and more of a demand for it. There are a lot of opportunities for growth, travel and learning. It’s a constantly evolving landscape technically, which is exciting. That said, this industry is hard work with long hours, so you need to be mindful of your career path and how that can form around a family or a desire to settle in one place.

CINEFEX: If you were to host a mini-festival of your three favorite effects movies, what would you put on the bill, and why?

SHAUNA BRYAN: The original Star Wars, The Empire Strikes Back and Forrest Gump. When I saw each of these films, I wondered, “How did they do that?”and was completely transported into the story. These films wouldn’t have been possible without visual effects and they changed my thinking as to the possibilities of storytelling. Standout sequences: the landspeeder and final battle from Star Wars; the Battle of Hoth and the duel from The Empire Strikes Back; the ping-pong tournament and Forrest in iconic history moments from Forrest Gump.

CINEFEX: What’s your favorite movie theater snack?

SHAUNA BRYAN: Popcorn and Snickers mini-bites, mixed together.

CINEFEX: Shauna, thanks for your time!

Florian Gellinger – Marvel, Barbecues, and the Future of German Cinema

Florian Gellinger

Florian Gellinger is executive visual effects producer at RISE, the company he co-founded in 2007. The chair of the German section of the Visual Effects Society and a member of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, he presented his company’s work on a range of Marvel Studios films including Ant-Man and the Wasp at VIEW Conference 2018. Cinefex spent half an hour in conversation with Florian, discussing a wide range of topics from managing a Marvel project to the benefits of holding company barbecues.

VIEW Conference 2018

CINEFEX: Your talk at VIEW Conference covered RISE’s work on Ant-Man and the Wasp, but that wasn’t the only Marvel Studios show you’ve worked on recently.

FLORIAN GELLINGER: No, we worked on all three Marvel films this year. Black Panther was by far the biggest one, and then on Avengers: Infinity War they threw this stuff at us for the tag sequence – the “blip” effect where people disintegrate. After that we jumped right onto Ant-Man and the Wasp. On that, you could say we were kind of a safety net, doing a lot of comp-heavy stuff.

CINEFEX: Did that mean dealing with the ongoing changes as the Marvel team continued to craft the storyline through post?

FLORIAN GELLINGER: Well, you just have to be aware that Marvel treats a live-action feature like Pixar treats an animated feature. I think that shows what exceptional storytellers they are, that they will not stop until the movie is out. That’s because Kevin Feige, the head of the studio, is still a geek at heart, who loves the source material so much and has his gang of people around him who feel the same. They treat the material with respect, and that’s why the fans feel treated with respect. Also, they are smart enough to make the whole thing appeal to a mass audience. I mean, my parents are watching Marvel films, and they’re in their early 70s!

CINEFEX: Some visual effects facilities have told us they adopt a slightly different workflow for Marvel shows, to deal with the unique demands. Is that how it works at RISE?

FLORIAN GELLINGER: I think it’s more the other way around. Because we’re used to the Marvel way of doing things, now we give all of our other clients the same treatment. We always have roughly 30 percent more crew available for the last two months of production on a show. That also helps us stick to relatively normal working hours. Of course, there are the standout shots which require more work and where we do spend long hours to make something exceptionally beautiful that we can be proud of.

Watch a RISE breakdown reel showcasing its work on Black Panther:

CINEFEX: We’ve always sensed that there’s quite a culture of fun and play at RISE.

FLORIAN GELLINGER: That’s the core thing, yeah. We believe that if you don’t enjoy what you’re doing, you shouldn’t be doing it. After all, we’re working in the entertainment industry. We’re not surgeons – this isn’t life or death.

CINEFEX: That spirit even comes through in your recruitment ads – which are often very amusing!

FLORIAN GELLINGER: Yes, and this is something that always puzzles me. You’re trying to appeal to young artists to work at your place, trying to lure in exceptional talents. Why would you do that with an overly corporate outer shell? I think you get the best talent when people get fair pay, and when they have fun doing their work. We think a company barbecue is always a good idea. Or a company party that maybe slightly escalates along the way!

CINEFEX: Is it hard to maintain that sense of unity across – what do you have, four offices now?

FLORIAN GELLINGER: We learned a lot by watching other companies grow. We always knew that if we were going to branch out and open other offices, then we needed to prepare all the tech that makes the work easy.

CINEFEX: For example?

FLORIAN GELLINGER: When we first opened our Cologne office, we made sure that you could instant-message anyone on their workstation, dial them up on their workstation or phone, share screens if you wanted to give advice or work together on a shot. When we opened in Stuttgart and Munich, we introduced the ability to synchronize all of the files for a specific show, so that all the files will be up to date in that other office all the time. So, if I’m closing my Nuke comp setup in Berlin, it takes about two seconds until someone in Munich can pick up and continue my work. The comp artist in Munich can then use the render farm in Berlin because all the files of his composite are already in Berlin – it’s only the Nuke setup that needs to be sent. It’s the same with assets, and so on. We need to have security clearance when we do this for certain shows, of course.

CINEFEX: It also helps to hold the team together even when everyone is miles apart.

FLORIAN GELLINGER: Yeah, it feels like everyone is working in the same building, but on a different floor. And they’re just too lazy to take the stairs! It’s like a big, slightly dysfunctional family.

Watch a RISE breakdown reel showcasing its work on Avengers: Infinity War:

CINEFEX: You work on the big Marvel movies, but you also do your share of German television and cinema. There’s a great heritage in German cinema, going way back – do you feel part of that continuum?

FLORIAN GELLINGER: Unfortunately, I think that spirit of innovation in cinema was somewhat lost over the last century. In Germany, we have a big divide between popular films and arthouse films. We do see really exceptional films like Jim Button and Luke the Engine Driver, the children’s film that was released this year, where a couple of German visual effects companies contributed amazing work, but these are just unicorn projects that just pop up from time to time. It seems like the audience has lost its trust in bigger-scale shows, and nobody’s expecting to see them any more.

CINEFEX: There was a bit of a boom in German filmmaking during the ‘80s.

FLORIAN GELLINGER: When Wolfgang Petersen made Das Boot and The NeverEnding Story. That was still creative moviemaking. Wolfgang Petersen said that he moved to Hollywood because it was too hard for him to realize his ideas in Germany. There were always so many naysayers who would say, “You can’t do this, you can’t do that.” Same thing with Roland Emmerich. He did his German sci-fi films but he just didn’t feel wanted or respected, so he moved to the States.

CINEFEX: Do you see any opportunities for change?

FLORIAN GELLINGER: I just wonder why are there so few German produced films not being shot in English, because then you would access a much larger audience. It’s not hard to get an international cast in. So, at RISE, we’re going to try that. We’ll start to produce our own films in 2019 with a film production company called RISE Pictures. We’re hooking up with producers around the world to produce visually high level international content.

CINEFEX: That’s exciting. Do you think that will also benefit the German visual effects industry?

FLORIAN GELLINGER: I think that Germany was not at the forefront of the digital film revolution, because the tax breaks around the world focused the work elsewhere. That made it hard for an ecosystem to grow. Now, there is so much work out there, and the German rebates have caught up to the international competition, so it’s getting better and better, and you have companies like Scanline and Mackevision and Trixter competing in the global market.

Also, if you look around the world, there is a lot of German talent out there – people who might have moved abroad in their mid-20s, found a partner, got married and had kids, and now they want those kids to live close to their grandparents – so they’re looking for a place back home. So now you’re looking at really exceptional talents who have done everything from amazing creature sculpting to programming muscle systems and tissue solvers. For them, there’s a big benefit in seeing the industry grow in Germany despite not having maybe the support or the ecosystem to grow in.

CINEFEX: It’s important to get culturally unique filmmakers out there on the world stage – now more than ever, perhaps. A German filmmaker has a different voice than a French filmmaker, or a Swedish filmmaker.

FLORIAN GELLINGER: Yeah. I read that George Lucas and Francis Ford Coppola were always jealous of the French filmmakers with their little handheld cameras. They were so flexible and could just go anywhere with their actors, pick any location they wanted and just start shooting. I think you lose that when your production reaches a certain size and you’re just going the path most traveled, and you’re not inventing any more. It’s like Rob Bredow said in his talk at VIEW – having all the options is not necessarily a good thing. When somebody limits your possibilities, that’s when you start inventing.

Save the date for next year’s VIEW Conference, scheduled for 21-25 October, 2019.

“Black Panther” image copyright © 2018 by MARVEL.

Jay Worth – Sharing a Unique Vision

Jay Worth - VFX supervisor on "Westworld"

Emmy award-winner Jay Worth has worked with Bad Robot since 2005 on television projects including Fringe, Person Of Interest and Westworld. Following his presentation at VIEW Conference 2018, Cinefex caught up with Jay to talk about his life as an independent visual effects supervisor.

VIEW Conference 2018

CINEFEX: You began your VIEW Conference presentation talking about your background in acting, and how you’d had all these other jobs before kind of falling into doing visual effects. You also said that helped you to develop what you call your own “unique vision.”

JAY WORTH: When I started out in visual effects, I felt like I was always playing catch-up – wondering how much was down to me, how much down to the writers, the artists – because I don’t really have a technical background. Then, after I’d been doing it for a while, I realized that I did know what I could bring to the table, and what my own unique vision was. And I love the idea that actually everybody has their own unique vision. Because when you look at any one visual effects shot, that’s been done by a person with their own individual perspective. Even if it’s a fluid simulation, it’s still done by an artist.

CINEFEX: What are the benefits of working as an independent visual effects supervisor?

JAY WORTH: Well, first, I tell people all the time that there are not enough independent visual effects supervisors in television. We all turn down work, a lot, and I think more and more studios and showrunners want to be working with independent supervisors when they can. The great thing for me as an independent is I can work with any companies I want, and I like being able to find those people out there that do certain things really well. I love when vendors send me specific reels. Send me your smoke reel. Send me your fire reel. If you have an artist that you cannot wait to put in front of me, let me know. It’s okay for me if you specialize in something.

CINEFEX: Because every artist has their own vision.

JAY WORTH: Right. There was this one matte painter at CoSA Visual Effects, and I would literally just email them and say, “Send it to her, because I know she’s the one who’s doing the shot.” I love when you find those certain artists. I had this one vendor, and when they were reading their breakdown and found they weren’t assigned this one sequence, they were pissed. They said, “You don’t understand, we’ve got a smoke guy that has to do these shots!” I love it when vendors do that.

CINEFEX: So you’re acting a little bit like a casting director – appropriate, given your background in acting.

JAY WORTH: I never really thought about it that way, but yes. I’m always looking for the next partners, the next CoSA, the next Important Looking Pirates. But also, television shows morph and change. Sometimes you’ll have a pilot that’s heavy on hard surfaces or matte paintings, and then you get into episode four and it’s all fluid simulations. A show doesn’t always want to be stuck with just one vendor.

Watch a Westworld season two breakdown reel by Important Looking Pirates:

CINEFEX: Is it sometimes the case that the right vendor comes along at just the right time?

JAY WORTH: Sure, that happened with Almost Human. It was the big climactic shot that establishes the entire world at the end of the pilot. We had done the whole episode, and I got a note from J.J. Abrams that said, “I hate this shot.” I emailed back to ask what he hated about it, and got no answer. So I used it as an audition piece. I sent the same brief and the same notes, with my idea of what needed to be fixed, to nine different companies. I got back nine of the most different matte paintings you’re ever going to see in your life. A lot of them didn’t work, but there was this one vendor that was seventh on the list in terms of size, and the lowest cost – Artifex Studios up in Vancouver. What they came up with was perfect. Everyone looked at it and said, “That’s the entire show, right there.” They ended up doing every matte painting for the rest of the show.

CINEFEX: These days, in features, the visual effects supervisor is often involved from day one. Is the same true for television?

JAY WORTH: Thankfully, I’ve been blessed that I’ve always been involved from the get-go, but I think that’s a fairly unique position. Bad Robot will call me to say they have a pilot for me; I’ll ask who’s directing it and they’ll say, “We don’t know yet!” So I end up in meetings with the showrunner, maybe a production designer, and me, in a room full of executives, first out of the gate in figuring out what this show will look like.

CINEFEX: Further down the line, when you’re into production, do you end up working on multiple episodes simultaneously?

JAY WORTH: It totally depends on the show, but usually you have four episodes going at once. You’re prepping one, shooting one, editing one, and delivering one or two at a time. Then all of a sudden it backs up, and everything goes a little haywire. With Netflix shows you have a little bit more freedom. From my perspective, because I work on multiple shows, I can have up to 30 shows in the pipeline. Lots of plate-spinning!

This breakdown reel from CoSA VFX features the company’s work on Westworld and other shows:

CINEFEX: Turning to Westworld, did the workload change when you moved from season one into season two?

JAY WORTH: Oh, the volume of work on season two! It was crazy how much more there was. Take Shogun World, my goodness! Because of the look they wanted, they hung silks through the entire street. We had to do hardcore roto to remove all the silks and do sky replacement. At first, we didn’t think we needed Mount Fuji, but we ended up putting Mount Fuji in most shots, because if you saw the California mountains back there it didn’t look right. One of the nice things was that we had a two-day blood element shoot – knife cuts and splashes, so much blood! – which I’d never gotten to do in my career. That was great.

CINEFEX: You had some big moments to tackle, too, like the passage of the hosts into this strange alternate realm in the season finale.

JAY WORTH: Right, there’s this fissure in the universe that goes to what they called the Sublime. But what does that look like? Is it a portal? A doorway? How’s the light going to work? There was this idea that it should bend and kind of tear into itself, and we also talked a lot theoretically about how it’s a computer program that only the hosts can see – but we didn’t want it to look digital …

CINEFEX: You can debate and articulate as much as you like about why something is the way it is, but …

JAY WORTH: Oh, there was a whole lot of “Why?” but it still came down to “What’s it going to look like?” We put in black particles and light particles and vibration and distortion and bending … we just kept chipping away to find out what’s underneath. That’s what this job is – it’s like visual sculpting.

CINEFEX: Do you think things will ramp up even more for Westworld season three?

JAY WORTH: Well, now our hosts are out, so I know that we’re going to have to see them somewhere. So for me it’s about worldbuilding, and I’m fascinated to see how that creative process goes. We’ve all seen future cities, for example, but it always comes back to those classic questions like, “What are the cars going to be?” I know a skyscraper’s going to be steel and glass, but how am I going to make it unique? Worldbuilding is always daunting, and a little scary, but it’s super fun. I’m looking forward to it.

Save the date for next year’s VIEW Conference, scheduled for 21-25 October, 2019.

“Westworld” image copyright © 2016 by Home Box Office.