About Graham Edwards

I'm senior staff writer at Cinefex magazine. I also write novels. In a former life, I produced animated films for theme park rides and science centres. If you offer me a cold beer, I won't say no.

“Big Eyes” – VFX Q&A

"Big Eyes" - Cinefex VFX Q&Q with Mark Stetson of Zoic Studios

Most Americans who lived through the 1950s and 1960s will be familiar with the paintings of Margaret Keane, an artist who specialised in pictures of teary waifs with extraordinarily large eyes. Yet for an entire decade the paintings were passed off as the work of Margaret’s husband, Walter Keane. Only after Margaret went to the press in 1970 was it proved in a federal court that she was the originator of the artwork – and thus was a pop-culture legend born.

In Tim Burton’s film Big Eyes, Amy Adams delivers a Golden Globe-winning performance as Margaret Keane, with Christoph Waltz as her manipulative husband. While Burton’s cinematic canvas is considerably smaller than on many of his other films, a number of visual effects shots were required to not only create Big Eyes’ period settings, but also to give audiences a glimpse into the imagination of the artist herself.

Visual effects for Big Eyes were handled by Zoic Studios, with Mark Stetson and Ralph Maiers acting as co-VFX supervisors, delivering a total of 155 shots. In this Q&A session, Mark Stetson reveals how his team transformed present-day Vancouver into the San Francisco of yesteryear, and what it took to give Amy Adams a set of giant-sized baby blues.

Watch VFX breakdowns by Zoic Studios for Tim Burton’s Big Eyes:

How did you get involved with the project, Mark?

Well, the short answer is that the show’s executive producer/first assistant director, Katterli Frauenfelder, called me up. The longer answer is that I’d worked with Tim Burton and the production designer, Rick Heinrichs, on two previous films. My former company, Stetson Visual Services, made the miniatures for Edward Scissorhands, and we built (and blew up!) the old abandoned zoo park for Batman Returns.

Also, here at Zoic Studios our matte department is headed up by legendary matte artist Syd Dutton, who served as VFX art director on the film. Syd grew up in San Francisco in the 1950s and 1960s, and he vividly remembers the life and culture of the city during the time of the story. I myself remember enough of Margaret Keane’s work and American culture of the period to make the story a very personal experience.

Finally, Zoic Studios has offices in Vancouver, with a features VFX team including VFX supervisor Ralph Maiers and VFX producer Lauren Weidel. That whole team had recently worked with Katterli on another project. Happy with that experience, Katterli was the first to suggest Zoic Studios for the visual effects for Big Eyes. The fact that I also had a happy history with Tim made it a great fit.

How long were you working on the film?

Katterli’s first call came in May 2013. Tim kept polishing the movie through the summer of 2014, which resulted in a few added shots as cuts and takes changed. We got the final approval for our last shot in November 2014.

Washington Square Art Show - original plate

Scenes of an art show in San Francisco’s Washington Square were shot in several park locations in Vancouver – original plate.

Washington Square Art Show - final composite

Washington Square Art Show – final composite with digital environment extension by Zoic Studios.

How closely did you work with Tim Burton?

I worked as a department head on the film, so I had a lot of interaction with Tim, Rick Heinrichs, Bruno Delbonnel, J.C. Bond and the rest of the filmmakers. On this film, the whole crew was small and Tim was pretty approachable.

When I first interviewed with Tim for Big Eyes, we talked briefly about the miniature effects my company had created for Edward Scissorhands and Batman Returns, and visual effects in general from the electro-mechanical, photochemical era. He asked me, “Do you miss those days?” I said I really missed the tools and processes of making tactile things by hand, with a team. But we do make better shots now, and standards of production quality are much higher.

I think those shared experiences helped make Tim comfortable with us, knowing that we had those skills to draw from and knowing that he would be looking for economies in the VFX work for Big Eyes. Tim was very conscious that the production would be much more constrained, and he was responsible to those constraints.

Was there much discussion about how “Burtonesque” to make the film, visually speaking?

Discovering how Tim was planning to give Big Eyes his unique perspective was really the fun part of this project. It was easy to see why Tim has an affinity for the themes in Margaret Keane’s life and work. It was also essential to appreciate the work of Bruno Delbonnel, the cinematographer, and to understand how Bruno and Tim’s styles and themes intersect.

Most of the time, Tim was restrained and subtle in applying those themes to the real places where this true story unfolds, but within the apparent reality of the world of Big Eyes, Tim’s story is still told through very carefully composed shots. The shooting style which Tim and Bruno used – mostly a single camera mounted on a tripod – may have been a creative choice but it also made low-budget VFX work much more achievable.

There are some shots that stand out as having Tim’s stamp. For example, Tim kept to a really stark vision of the numbing suburbia that Margaret escapes at the beginning of the film. And then, Tim’s choice to freely place the Golden Gate Bridge in a convenient place to establish Margaret’s arrival in San Francisco was a surprise to all of us. The Furniture Factory interior scene with all the painters trapped in their crib cages, the New York Times exterior establishing shot, and the swinging San Francisco nightlife scene are all quite surreal.

Margaret Keane leaves suburbia to drive to San Francisco - bluescreen plate.

Margaret Keane leaves suburbia to drive to San Francisco – bluescreen plate.

Margaret Keane leaves suburbia to drive to San Francisco - final composite.

Margaret Keane leaves suburbia to drive to San Francisco – final composite.

The enlarged eyes of Margaret Keane’s paintings are similar to Johnny Depp’s “Mad Hatter” eyes in Tim Burton’s Alice in Wonderland. Did you draw any lessons from that film?

Ha-ha! Close! Actually we looked at how Tim had transformed Helena Bonham Carter as the Queen of Hearts. But Tim never mentioned either of them. Margaret Keane is a living artist and there’s a lot of material out there about her and her work. Tim owns a few Keane originals, a couple of which he shared with us. Then, when we scouted San Francisco locations, we visited the Keane Eyes Gallery there. It was pretty amazing to be surrounded by so many of Margaret’s pieces.

How did you tackle the “hallucination” scenes, in which Margaret Keane imagines that the people around her – and ultimately she herself – have enlarged eyes?

This was a very low-budget film, so we kept all our visual effects solutions as simple and straightforward as possible. As we were prepping the film, Tim said he was planning to do a couple of shots where the audience experience how Margaret “sees” her world. Using our VFX producer Lauren Weidel as a test subject, VFX supervisor Ralph Maiers and compositing supervisor Kenton Rannie developed a series of looks to explore how far they could distort a human face to the proportions of a big-eyed waif, without breaking the mood by making it too grotesque.

Watch Zoic Studios’ original test shot for the “big eyes” effect:

Drawing on our experiences with digital cosmetic work, we made a series of still frame grabs as target looks, which Tim reviewed. When we got close to what he was after, we used facial tracking, warping, scaling, and painting and patching techniques to make the gag work in motion. Tim was most restrained with Amy Adams’ face. His dictum conforms with one of the primary rules I tell new VFX artists: “Protect Your Actors!”

A large part of your work involved turning present-day Vancouver into 1950s and 1960s San Francisco. Where did you start?

Syd Dutton dove right into the research, pulling much of what he needed right from his own library. Syd has some great books of the San Francisco scene from that period, many of which Tim also used as reference. The production designer, Rick Heinrichs, also kept us pointed in the right direction with his research. Funnily enough, the best reference we found for the images of suburban hell, from which Margaret escapes at the beginning of the film, were from Edward Scissorhands.

North Beach Nightlife - concept art by Syd Dutton.

North Beach Nightlife – concept art by Syd Dutton.

Syd then created a series of concept sketches, based on location photos around Vancouver and enhanced with backgrounds that he’d found: photography from 1950s and 1960s San Francisco. Key scenes that he illustrated included the view of the Bay Bridge and Coit Tower from Walter’s apartment, the art show scene in Washington Square (based on two or three alternate park locations around Vancouver), the view of Alcatraz in the bay beyond a Vancouver police station, and the neighbourhood around the Keane Art Gallery, shot in the Gastown area, and developed to look like San Francisco’s North Beach. These illustrations were a huge confidence builder for Tim and the producers.

Soon Rick Heinrichs was feeding us photos of locations from other scenes, using Syd and the rest of the Zoic team as a resource to develop the location requirements for sequences including the suburban hell from which Margaret escapes as the film opens, the furniture factory where she finds her first job, the Hungry I nightclub where the Keane paintings find their first success, and others.

Once the concept art was approved, where did you go from there?

Syd and I developed a rhythm of sharing VFX concepts between Rick, Bruno and Tim. For Syd, the real fun was in blending details from different historical locations to convey the romance of the period to a modern audience. He was decidedly not literally accurate, and he had an intuitive feel for what was important to Tim. Often simply inserting a steep side alley was enough.

As Tim started approving the location-based concepts, producer Lynette Howell asked for a set of Syd’s illustrations to forward to The Weinstein Company, as part of Rick Heinrich’s plan presentation, which led to the green-light for the film. We very proud to be so closely involved in the process, and I was very happy with the location choices that this development work led to. It gave us some influence over how the locations were chosen and shot, and also gave us a preview of how the shots would be finished.

Additionally, I think the costume design by Colleen Atwood, and the cars found by Picture Car Coordinator Rick Rasmussen and the rest of the transportation team, went a long way to setting the scene in the period, so we had a great canvas to start our matte shots.

At one point we get a view of the 1964 NYC World’s Fair. What was involved with recreating this historical panorama?

I grew up on the East Coast in the 1960s, and actually visited the New York World’s Fair in 1964. I dug out my Kodak Brownie snapshots of my trip there and shared them with our team. One or two of which may have been useful, but at that time I was fixated on the Chrysler Turbine Car.

Rick Heinrichs gave us some concept sketches for the interior of the Hall of Education, which CG supervisor Richard Patterson and his team executed. Only the floor, the actors and the painting were real. Syd sketched up the exterior view from the Hall of Education scene. This evolved over many weeks as a digital matte painting, as we worked to integrate as many fair icons as we could into the scene.

The footage of Lowell Thomas’s introduction to the fair was edited stock footage, which required heavy restoration. Our lead compositor John Fukushima spent a long time with this sequence, using Nuke comp and retiming tools.

It started as an HD transfer of 16mm film. We were unable to find any of the original negative, so we were left with the HD QuickTimes. Extensive stabilization was required, and faded color, low contrast, muddy resolution and physical damage all needed to be repaired. A lot of the backgrounds were replaced with painted interpretations of the scene.

Neither we, Tim nor the editor, J.C. Bond, could say how the restored footage would sit within the film, in terms of look and finish. We knew that it would be some kind of cutaway, as if we were viewing a news serial, but all Tim could ask us to do was to make it look as good as the Alexa footage that Bruno shot around it. That was too tall an order, but I must say that looking at the original footage and the restored footage back-to-back is astonishing.

You mentioned that Burton added new shots as he polished the film. How much extra workload did that generate for Zoic?

Shortly after Tim had screened the film for Harvey Weinstein, I was in London on another assignment, and I visited Tim Burton at his editing suite there to see how the VFX work was looking in the cut. Tim told me that he was thinking about adding several establishing shots to the film, all of which would require visual effects.

Hawaiian vista - concept art

Hawaiian vista establishing shot – concept art by Syd Dutton.

He gave me some reference photos he’d found to show how he wanted San Francisco to look for the new shots, and a diagram of a shot he had in mind to establish Hawaii later in the story. Syd Dutton took those cues and developed new concept sketches that quickly got us on track with Tim’s thinking. The shots included two additional establishing shots in Hawaii (the Honolulu overlook and the radio station – matte artist Jim Hawkins helped with this one) and a totally fabricated and stylized shot of the 1964 New York Times entrance in Manhattan.

Also included was a shot establishing a fictitious French restaurant, Chez Henri, where Walter and Margaret have their first date (I made up the name based on the name of the maître d’ in the film). This was set on Powell Street in San Francisco, on the site of the famous Omar Khayyam Restaurant and surrounded by otherwise authentic establishments of the period.

"Chez Henri" - original plate

During post-production, additional establishing shots were photographed in San Francisco, including the exterior of the fictitious French restaurant “Chez Henri” – original plate.

Chez Henri - final composite

“Chez Henri” – final composite.

The final two shots were an establishing shot of the China Dragon Restaurant (I made up that name too, based on the dragon motifs in the interior location) set in a Chinatown location authentic to the period, and a very stylized shot portraying the Hungry I nightclub in the midst of the swinging nightlife of San Francisco; that was an amalgam of Kearny Street, Broadway, and the International Settlement.

I travelled back to San Francisco and Hawaii to shoot plates, then to Vancouver, where line producer Brendan Ferguson and production manager George Horie had fired up a film unit for a day and night of greenscreen photography, to add people and cars to the scenes. Those shots were the biggest and most challenging of the film for us. They were also the most satisfying, because Tim gave us a lot of responsibility for their design and execution. We packed a lot of production value into a very slim budget and schedule for those shots.

What will you take away from your experience on Big Eyes?

I’m never happy with everything on any show. The work is never done completely to my own satisfaction. I think on my feet, to try to pack as much as I can into a low-budget feature with high standards, and I always feel like there are things that I missed on such a short schedule and tight budget. I guess I learned exactly what I forget each time I start a new project, big or small: to let go.

I also had one of the most embarrassing moments of my career on Big Eyes. As I was leaning in close to Amy Adams on location to shoot reference shots of her hair for roto patching, Katterli whispered, “Mark! Your pants are split all the way up your backside!” And they were. They were a new pair of cargo pants I had bought just for the project! I kept shooting, of course. The kind wardrobe department team stitched them up on the spot, as I was wearing them, right there on the Washington Square Art Show set in Lumberman’s Arch Park in Vancouver!

Special thanks to Lauren Weidel, Jenna Wigman and Joe Fordham. Photographs and videos copyright © The Weinstein Company 2014 and courtesy of Zoic Studios.

“Horns” – Makeup and Visual Effects

Daniel Radcliffe sports KNB's demon makeup in "Horns"

What would you do if you were suddenly granted the power to read minds? And what if the secrets you discovered were in fact their owners’ deepest, darkest desires?

These are just two of the unsettling questions faced by Daniel Radcliffe in his lead role as Ig Perrish, in the Lionsgate production of Horns. Adapted from the novel by Joe Hill and directed by Alexandre Aja, Horns is released on Blu-ray and DVD today.

The satanic horns of the film’s title materialise one morning when Ig, wrongly accused of his girlfriend’s murder, wakes to find them growing inexplicably from his forehead. Using their supernatural powers, he embarks on a personal crusade to track down his girlfriend’s killer.

Horns features makeup effects and prosthetics by KNB EFX, supplemented by visual effects from Tippett Studio.

Makeup Effects and Prosthetics – KNB EFX

The primary task for KNB EFX was to create the various sets of horns worn by Daniel Radcliffe during his gradual transformation from Ig Perrish into a fully-fledged demon.

“We did four different stages of horns that we attached to Daniel, as well as a fantasy drug-dream prosthetic makeup,” recalled KNB EFX on-set makeup effects supervisor Mike McCarty. “We did a burn suit and accompanying makeup, the final demon look with its huge set of horns, a few blood gags, an exploding head and some mechanical snakes. We had Daniel in and out of prosthetics at least 35 times over the course of the shoot.”

The makeup and prosthetics team benefited from the company’s long association with director Alexandre Aja. “KNB EFX has done all of Alex Aja’s projects since The Hills have Eyes (2006),” McCarty remarked. “I’ve personally been on set for most of them: Mirrors, Piranha 3D, Maniac, Horns, and his current project, The 9th Life of Louis Drax. As Alex likes to say, we’re part of the family.”

Despite their fantastic aspect, the look of Ig’s horns was developed using real-world reference material. “We looked at a lot of horns in nature, and went back and forth with what our conceptual designer John Wheaton came up with,” McCarty explained. “We got notes from Alex, and ultimately ended up using various stages of ram horns as reference.”

Daniel Radcliffe in "Horns"

After the initial sculpting stage, the horns themselves were cast using dental acrylic.

“Dave Grasso and Jaremy Aiello handled most of the sculpting duties in the shop,” commented McCarty. “Then Jason James ran the horns out of acrylic and attached them to a wire rig we made on Daniel’s head cast. The horns were set at the perfect angle so we could just plop them into place, and they would naturally rest there.

“Then we hid the wire rig under Daniel’s hair. We had a few hair clips attached to the rig as well, so when he shook his head, they wouldn’t move. Once we had them secured, we hid the edge with a small prosthetic to blend them and make it look like they were coming out of his skin. Mike Fields and myself shared the application duties, and so did it twice as fast as it would have taken one artist.”

For a scene in which Ig gouges his horns into a plaster wall, a more resilient solution was required. The solution was to produce a robust, wig-covered helmet, on to which the horns were screwed.

To effect Ig’s climactic transformation into demon form, Radcliffe wore a full-body foam latex suit. “The suit created the burned look, and then we had a cowl, some face pieces and some hand pieces, which we blended into the suit,” explained McCarty. “The huge horns were super-lightweight. We just clipped them into place on a helmet under the cowl. We painted bright neon orange paint into the cracks in the suit. VFX were able to key on this and add fiery lava to make it look like he was burning from within.

“The whole final demon makeup took us only two hours; it was applied by Mike Fields, Maiko Gomyo and myself. If you can do something that extensive and still keep makeup chair times down, it’s better for the actor – especially when they have a such a physical day ahead of them. And Daniel Radcliffe was a joy to work with.”

As well as Radcliffe, McCarty and his team also had the opportunity to transform Joe Hill, during a visit by the author to the set. “Joe wanted to try the horns out, so we glued a small set on him,” McCarty recalled. “That was kind of cool. He was really glad KNB EFX was involved, and he loved everything we were doing. That was a nice justification for the hard work we had put in.”

Cyberscanning and Lidar – Industrial Pixel

Character scanning and lidar for Horns were undertaken by Industrial Pixel.

“We scanned Daniel Radcliffe, Heather Graham, and the majority of the cast,” said the company’s president Ron Bedard. “We scanned Daniel in make-up in three different looks – including his prosthetic horns, and the “nubs” on his back where the wings were to go.

“It was definitely a challenge, as we were scanning outdoors in a small town called Squamish. We were in an old tennis court and it was raining cats and dogs. But we thrive on challenges like this.”

Industrial Pixel also lidared the abandoned Britannia Mine, located north of Vancouver. “I believe that was used for a set extension as well as tracking,” commented Bedard. “It was damn cold and dark. There was water dripping everywhere. I’m sure Jason from Friday the 13th was hiding out there!”

Daniel Radcliffe and Heather Graham star in "Horns"

Tippett Studio – Visual Effects

Tippett Studio delivered around 170 visual effects shots for Horns, in a timescale of less than three months, a tight schedule due to their being called in at the eleventh hour to take over the visual effects work from another facility.

Shots included wire removals, 2D comps of set extensions, character make-up augmentations, and fully articulated, animated and rendered snakes. Visual effects supervisor duties were shared between Matt Jacobs and Chris Morley.

“We were moving at a very fast pace from start to end,” commented Jacobs. “I think that can only happen when you work well with the director, and he trusts that you will make his movie look good. Luckily, I’d worked previously with Alex, as well as with the production VFX Supervisor, Derek Wentworth, on Piranha 3D.”

Daniel Radcliffe in "Horns"While the Tippett Studio team received a number of assets during the handover, others still had to be created. “The direction was very clear,” Jacobs observed. “The show had been in production for quite some time, and Alex knew what he was looking for.”

During the demon transformation scene, Ig briefly grows a pair of wings. “Our CG supervisor, Aharon Bourland, created the look of the wings,” said Jacobs. “Right out of the box, they looked realistic. The wings are very pale, and the way the light passes through them makes them look like a practical wing shot on set.”

The CG wings were built using Tippett Studio’s proprietary feather system. “Using RenderMan’s plausible shading, millions of individual curves created the barbs,” Jacobs explained. “Render times were brought down by baking curves into area shadow maps, and only tracking against the base geometry. Transparency color was also baked in to simulate light scattering through the wings.”

Having created Ig’s wings, the VFX team’s next task was to set them on fire. “The feather shader read an animated coordinate system that drove the burning,” Jacobs related. “The wings themselves were eroded away with procedural noise. We also passed off point clouds that the FX animators could use to create embers coming off the burning wings.”

"Horns" poster

Despite the challenges of the breakneck pace, Jacobs reflected that tight deadlines can have their advantages: “We actually learned to work a little faster. We did that by not getting hung up on things that were less important. All too often these days, people are fixated on finding out what’s wrong and going over every pixel in the picture. That didn’t really happen on this show. When the pictures look great, and tell the story, you’ve succeeded.”

Special thanks to Niketa Roman and Howard Berger. Images copyright © 2014 Lionsgate Entertainment Inc.

Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb

Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb - Cinefex VFX Q&A

In Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb, Ben Stiller reprises his role as night guard Larry Daley, and sets out on an international odyssey to restore the powers of a magical Egyptian tablet that brings the museum exhibits to life. Without the tablet’s sorcery to sustain them, the various characters who have become Larry’s friends will return to their former lifeless states.

Shaun Levy returns as director for this third film in the popular series, with Erik Nash taking on the role of production visual effects supervisor. Under Nash’s guidance, the task of breathing life into the film’s many and varied characters fell to a collective of visual effects facilities scattered as far across the globe as Larry and his companions.

VFX supervisors from four of these facilities – MPC, Digital Domain, Cinesite and Method Studios – are here to share their experiences on the film, in this extended VFX Q&A.

Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb - constellations VFX by MPC

MPC – VFX Supervisor, Seth Maury

How many shots did MPC deliver for the show, and how was the work divided between the different offices?

MPC delivered 250 shots in total. I was personally working on the show for about ten months.

The way MPC works is that all asset work – models, texture, rigging and so on – is centralised in London and Bangalore. From look-dev onwards, most of the work then happens in Vancouver. On Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb, Bangalore also animated some sequences and lit some shots; MPC are bringing up the Bangalore division to be able to do those things.

How did you get involved with the show?

I got the call back in February 2014, when I was finishing up working on Maleficent. I was really interested in the show, because I like doing character work. Also, my eight year-old son loves the movies. So I said, “I’ll do it!”

So you were primarily involved with character work?

Yes. The first time I met the production VFX supervisor, Erik Nash, he asked, “How’s your fur pipeline?” It kind of cascaded from there.

From the previous movie, we recreated animals including an antelope, a boar, a moose, a mammoth, an ostrich, a rhino and an oryx. For the British Museum scenes, we had a whole host of statues that come to life. Before I came on the movie, the production art department had worked with the British Museum to see what pieces they had that we could make digital versions of. They had some cool little turtles, and some small ceramic elephants that we made life-sized. We also made these pretty metal peacocks – for those we started with the shape of one of the museum pieces, then brought in our own colour and texture.

In revisiting the original animals, did you repurpose existing assets or create new ones?

We were given the final look-dev turntable models of some of the original characters. We also took a bunch of stills from the previous two movies for reference. A lot of times, that was a good starting point, but essentially we started from scratch, because of the way our character pipeline works and the way we do fur. Technologically speaking, a couple of years between movies is quite a long time. The modelling’s done in Maya and ZBrush. Then we use bunch of in-house plugins that run off Maya.

Did the sculptural nature of the British Museum creatures bring a different set of challenges?

Yes. The first thing we did was faithfully re-create the actual museum pieces, because we didn’t know how much latitude we had per asset. As we went along, we established which ones we could change.

One challenge was that a lot of the pieces – the ceramic elephants, for instance – were just a couple of inches long. When we scaled them up to life-size, we realised the textures didn’t look quite right. So there was a lot of translation from small to large. Erik was great about that. We would show him work in progress – an early model, then stuff at 50% and 75%. He might look at the feet on the turtles, for instance, and say, “Look at the way those feet are carved – if they’d been carved by hand at this size, the edge would be sharper.”

What about the animation? Presumably a ceramic elephant moves in a different way to a flesh-and-blood elephant?

Ceramic elephant VFX by MPCA lot of the style came from the first two movies. If something was made of a material like ceramic or metal or jade, the director, Shaun Levy, definitely wanted it to move as if it were made out of that material. It’s a fine line between making that work and not having it look like bad animation!

So, for example, while the ceramic elephant moves relatively stiffly, he can swing his trunk and swish his tail, just not with the amplitude or speed that a real elephant would do it. When he takes a step, his foot has a little squash to it, but not as much as a real elephant. So you get a subtle impression of all those things you’re used to seeing in a real animal.

So do your CG models have the same skeleton and musculature as their flesh-and-blood counterparts?

By default, our rigging team put ribcages inside these creatures, so that when muscles fired or when they took a big breath you would see the impression of ribs. I would have to say, “No, actually we don’t want that, because they don’t have that inside.” It was a delicate balance: putting in a certain amount of realism, but taking out what wouldn’t actually be there.

Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb - dinosaur skeleton VFX by MPC

Which sequence gave you the most challenges?

At one point in the show, there are five or six shots of the monkey, Dexter, doing an acrobatic aerial silks routine, hanging from two strips of fabric suspended from the ceiling. We created a digital monkey for that. We worked on the sequence pretty much from the beginning of the project to the end.

On-set, they had the cutest little monkey called Crystal. In the first two movies, they’d also used a digital monkey for some medium and wide shots. When we started out, we had the same agenda. We were told: “We’re going to have a digi-double, but you won’t see it in close-up.” But we decided to future-proof the asset, just in case we needed a tight shot, because it’s easier to build it high-res in the beginning than to go back and upgrade everything later.

And did those tight shots actually materialise?

Yes. Sure enough, a couple of those shots ended up being a medium to tight shot on our digital face.

We’d done a photo acquisition of Crystal, and our CG supervisor, Mo Sobhy, worked with look-dev to make the digital double work, refining the textures and so on. It’s that fine line again – mostly in the animation: “How would a real monkey do it versus a human? How can we bring monkey traits to it, but still have it look graceful?” For example, a monkey doesn’t point its toes when it’s hanging upside-down.

Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb - constellations VFX by MPC

Can you talk about the planetarium sequence, where all the constellations come to life?

They built a beautiful planetarium set at Burnaby, near Vancouver – I haven’t seen a set that big in quite a while. They built the first floor of the planetarium up to about sixteen feet, and put a huge translight around the outside to re-create the New York environment . Our first job was to top up the set to the roof.

Hanging from the roof is a huge sphere – it looks kind of like Saturn – and then there’s a circular walkway that goes up around the outside, with all the constellations displayed. We re-created that, minus the support structures that hold the sphere up. I feel like we did a really good job with that – it’s pretty seamless.

The next thing we had to do was to bring these five constellations to life: Leo Major, Leo Minor, Orion, Scorpio, and Cancer. As the show opens, these characters made of stars kind of float up in the higher regions of the planetarium and do a little performance.

How did you go about breathing life into what’s essentially just a pattern of stars?

The first reference we got from Erik was a picture of the Orion nebula. He said, “I like the essence of this. See what you can make of it.” So we started playing with modelling some characters, and got the effects team working on what this thing might look like. Is it transparent? Semi-transparent? Do I see nebulae swirling inside? Does it have a hard shell? How well can I read each form, or is it just made up of stars? That went round and round for a while, because it really could be anything.

We put a few different ideas forward, and what we got back from Shaun Levy was: “I really want it to be made of stars.” So Erik and I worked back and forth refining that idea. We ended up with a character that’s pretty transparent, but has a subtle surface impression of nebulae and galaxies. It’s pretty cool, actually.

Given that Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb is the third film in a series, did it feel as if you were covering old ground?

It’s funny, it didn’t feel like ground we’d covered before. That’s the great thing about Erik and Shaun – those guys were up for fresh ideas and bringing either a new look to something, or having characters act in a different way. I think that permeated the whole project. We didn’t have to just dogmatically match what had been done before.

For me personally, I had a lot of fun with the Dexter acrobat sequence. I’d just come off Maleficent, which has a very atmospheric look, so for the Dexter sequence I enjoyed playing with light beams and spotlights to bring atmosphere to the shots, which I don’t think we’d seen in other parts of the movie. Plus, at the end of the day it’s just silly, and I know my son’s going to laugh at it!

Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb - gold tablet VFX by Cinesite

Cinesite – VFX Supervisor, Zave Jackson

What was Cinesite’s involvement in the show?

We were tasked with the enhancement of the golden tablet – both look-dev and execution – showing the progression of its corrosion and the green glowing edge detail. We also created the golden glowing tablet shots. To do that, we referenced the first two Night at the Museum films to get an idea of the series’ vibe. We also looked at time-lapse footage of various metals corroding, and explored imagery of rust patterns and different types of tarnished metals. We delivered 87 shots over the course of about five weeks.

What happens during the corrosion sequence?

As the damaged tablet starts to corrode, the magic keeping the museum exhibits alive starts to die. There’s a close-up shot of the golden tablet on the wall of the museum, in which we see the corrosion texture crawling over its surface. The camera flies down on to the surface of the tablet to an almost macro-photography distance, then follows the decay as it advances. This establishes that the tablet is “dying” from this disease-like corrosion.

How did you go about creating the corrosion shots?

We began by building an accurate CG model of the practical tablet used on set: a golden slab with nine square sections engraved with Egyptian hieroglyphics. The squares rotate on spindles, like an ancient abacus. We knew we’d need to get extremely close to the model, seeing the fine scuffing of the polished gold surface and the more complex detail of the corroded parts, so we went through a detailed texturing process. Additional texturing work was required for the corroded version.

Next we created the intricate, organic movement of the corrosion’s green, glowing edge as it progresses over the tablet’s surface. The animated leading edge was created in 2D, using fractal noise tools. We turned the resulting animation into masks that were UV-mapped back on to the geometry. We also used the masks to displace the geometry in the 3D render, giving volume and depth to the edge of the corroded section of tablet.

For shots which didn’t need to be animated, our solution was to object-track the tablet used in the shot. We created a predetermined set of directional lighting passes, texture passes and utility passes based on a generic lighting set up and rendered using V-Ray. It was then up to the compositors to balance the lights to make the new corroded tablet fit into each shot.

Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb - tablet corrosion VFX by Cinesite

Did working on Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb teach you anything new?

We learned that, given a body of shots that were quite similar and by using the right methodology, it’s possible to deliver a fairly large number of shots with just one person handling the lighting, and a small compositing team.

Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb - visual effects by Method Studios

Method Studios – VFX Supervisor, Chad Wiebe

How did you get involved with the show, and how many shots did Method Studios deliver?

I’d worked with Method’s VFX producer, Genevieve West, on several Fox films prior to this, so we were confident we’d be the right fit for the Fox team, including the production VFX supervisor, Erik Nash. We delivered 209 shots, over an eight-month post schedule, with a crew of around 70 people.

Watch Method Studios’ VFX breakdown reel from Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb:

What was your main contribution to the film?

Our animation supervisor, Erik de Boer, has extensive experience with creature animation – he worked on Life of Pi and The Maze Runner – so we were interested in continuing to build our animation and creature repertoire. For that reason, we focused on the sequence where the lion statues in London’s Trafalgar Square come to life, and the scene in which Larry Daley (Ben Stiller) and his gang battle Xiangliu, a nine-headed snake creature. We also contributed shots involving Jed and Octavius (Owen Wilson and Steven Coogan), including the scene in the ducts, and where they’re watching kittens wrestling on YouTube.

Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb - Trafalgar Square lions VFX by Method Studios

How did you go about bringing the lions of Trafalgar Square to life?

During the London shoot, we were able to photograph the actual lion statues in many different lighting and weather conditions. This gave us texture and modelling reference, which proved immensely helpful. Together with what was shot on the day using the production’s Red cameras, that got us off to a fast start in building the lion assets.

What was your approach to animating these huge statues?

It was an interesting challenge. We wanted to respect their original scale and weight, but for shots where they chase a flashlight and wrestle, they also needed to have a kitten-like appeal and playfulness. So we keyed off the YouTube kitten clip, as well as a ton of real lion footage. To preserve the sculpted look of the animals, we skipped dynamic and harmonic skin sims for a more controlled blendshape approach in the face and body. By doing this, we matched the look established in the previous movies.

The lions’ manes needed a custom deformation toolset, created by James Jacobs and his creature team. By simulating underlying strips of geometry representing the mane, we were able to have sections sliding over top of each other and driving the deformations of the single mesh, creating more complex deformations than traditional weighting would have allowed.

Did you take a similar approach with the Xiangliu?

There was a physical build of the nine-headed snake coiled in a sleeping pose. This was scanned and used as the basis for our CG build. It was also used in-shot, which proved to be extremely useful lighting reference.

From an animation standpoint – as well as visual – we wanted a creature that not only stayed true to its statuesque origin, but also fully reflected the real-world attributes that make snakes such amazing creatures.

Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb - Xiangliu VFX by Method Studios

How did you choreograph the action?

The sequence was extremely well-thought out – we were provided post-vis which was very close to what the director wanted from a blocking standpoint. Using this as reference, our animators were able to move full steam ahead with a clear target, pushing out some amazing animation in a very short amount of time.

From there, our lighting team got a very clear indication of where our creatures would be in the environment. This was a big plus, due to the challenges associated with trying to light nine reflective, tubular shapes all competing for screen space. For example, we noticed very early on that the most minor position change of one snake would have a dramatic impact on the lighting and reflections of all the others.

Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb - Xiangliu VFX by Method Studios

Animating nine heads simultaneously must have been quite a challenge.

The key for the snake animation was finding the balance between managing the shapes with animation controls, and maximising the usability of the rig for the animators – making sure it didn’t become too heavy or counter-intuitive. We wanted strong, broad shapes with solid, serpentine motion, and a real sense that the heads were driven and lifted all the way back from the tail, which was connected to the sculpture’s base. Our creature TD, Paul Jordan, created a very successful rig for this that allowed us to design the overall motion on one level, and to twist and sculpt on several lower layers.

Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb - Xiangliu VFX by Method Studios

Tell us more about the rig.

The big challenge was creating a rig which would allow extreme poses and actions without compromising the look of the snake or overly distorting its geometry. We also had to come up with a way to have the snakes’ scales behave in a realistic manner. Paul developed a follicle system that would allow each scales to slide over the next. That way, they stayed as true as possible to their original size and shape.

Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb - Jed & Octavius VFX by Method Studios

Did you bring anything new to the miniature characters of Jed and Octavius?

One interesting new bit of technology we employed was “focus stacking”, which created a much more realistic marriage between Jed and Octavius and their full-size environment.

When shooting macro-photography with traditional cameras, you typically have a very narrow depth of field. When compositing actors, this can typically result in a visual mismatch. For Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb, we created our background plates by shooting footage in which we racked focus from a locked-off camera. We then compiled all the in-focus areas into one image. This allowed us to do something that’s traditionally not possible in miniature photography: create an infinite depth of field, and then adjust it to taste.

By this process of focus stacking, we were able to control and match the two opposing elements, allowing us to make the backgrounds look as though they’d been shot through tiny cameras in scale with our miniature characters. It also allowed us to preserve all the great detail you get from shooting real-life objects instead of building giant props, which can create its own visual challenges.

Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb - visual effects by Digital Domain

Digital Domain – VFX Supervisor, Lou Pecora

How many shots did Digital Domain deliver, and which sequences do they feature in?

Digital Domain executed around 340 shots. I started on the show after principal photography had wrapped in late summer, so we did this volume of work between August and November.

We were lucky enough to get the Escher Tablet Pursuit sequence, the Pompeii diorama eruption, the Greek statue encounter, and a smattering of complex 2D split screens with double the Stiller!

Let’s begin with the volcanic eruption. How close to reality did you stick?

For Pompeii, we studied lots of real volcano eruption footage to figure out which parts we could keep and which we had to lose. For instance, most of the real oozing lava we studied didn’t flow nearly fast enough to be as threatening as the sequence required, but the eruptive elements spewing out of the caldera were more true to life.

Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb - volcanic eruption VFX by Digital Domain

Many films have used the splitscreen trick to duplicate actors. How did you go about twinning Ben Stiller?

For the “Ben and Ben” splitscreen work, we went back and watched Multiplicity. There’s some phenomenal work in there – work that definitely still holds up today.

The scenes where there are multiple Michael Keatons in the shots at the same time that don’t interact were really good; however, two shots in particular stood out to me. The first is where Michael Keaton’s character takes a cigarette out of a clone’s mouth, who then blows smoke back at him. The second is the scene where the original Doug keeps refilling clone #4’s glass with Coke. These shots where they interact with each other, and interact with the same objects, were the most impressive, so that’s what we aimed for.

We have a few places where Ben’s Larry character and his Laa character touch each other – patting each other on the back, touching faces, and so on. That really sells the effect, and it definitely was as difficult to execute as you would imagine.

Can you describe the Escher Tablet Pursuit sequence?

The whole process of bringing this piece to life was one of the more interesting challenges I’ve faced in my career. In the sequence, three live-action characters end up in the M.C. Escher lithograph called “Relativity”. In this world of multiple gravities, a chase ensues with the characters all trying desperately to lay their hands on the tablet.

How did you set about transferring M.C. Escher’s mind-bending artwork on to the screen?

We studied the original artwork and other Escher pieces to make sure that the etch treatment we put on the photographic elements was authentic to his style. Taking a static piece of lithography and turning it into a cinematic experience brought all kinds of things into consideration – things one would never think about. For instance, how would we deal with motion blur, depth of field, and moving shadows? These were all design details that required lots of trial and error.

Then, based on solid previs from Proof, our VFX supervisor, Swen Gillberg, shot all of the action on a small greenscreen stage in Burnaby, Vancouver.

Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb - visual effects by Digital Domain

How did you make your CG set look like the original lithography artwork?

We came up with complex shaders that dynamically resized the pattern density based on factors such as distance to camera and size in frame. Our CG supervisor, Tim Nassauer, devised a very clever way to achieve this by using multiple interlocking patterns that would increase the density and fidelity of the etch lines as the surface moved closer to camera.

Studying the Escher artwork taught us that shadows aren’t just darker areas due to light being occluded, but rather a more dense arrangement of the lithographic pattern that’s present in surrounding areas. This led us to render a full set of the denser pattern to be revealed through shadow mattes; these were either generated in the scene, rotoscoped or keyed from the plate photography. Our compositing department, supervised by Francis Puthanangadi, was ultimately tasked with blending these various density passes to attain the appropriate line density and fidelity.

It sounds like a highly technical challenge. Did you also have to make a lot of artistic judgement calls?

VFX always involves a balance of technical acumen and artistry. This sequence definitely provided its share of technical challenges, but most of the journey was spent making artistic decisions and creative calls.

The etch treatment applied to the photography, for example, was very finicky and sensitive, depending on how large or small something was in frame. There was no real formula for it, only artistic instincts on what looked right: pattern angles; how many different sections we would need; how fine or coarse the pattern should be; how heavily the effect should be printed in. These would all have to be dialed in on a case-by-case basis, sometimes animating them throughout a shot if we were going from wide to close or vice versa.

Did the same apply to more conventional effects such as motion blur?

Dealing with motion blur, depth of field, and so on is usually very straightforward. In this case, however, we had to make a lot of artistic calls on how they should be handled. Do we put the etch on before the defocus and let the lines get blurry? Do we let the etch treatment get motion blurred, or do we put the motion blur on before the treatment? There were many variables and decisions to make along the way and our comp lead, Brian Rust, and look-dev artist, Joe Spano, ran through the gamut of these variables – and many more – to achieve what ultimately became the look for the sequence.

For the most part, there’s some semblance of reality that one can use as a metric to see if an effect looks “right”. The design-oriented nature of this work made that more difficult, as we had to rely so much more on our far less concrete artistic intuitions. In the end, that was what made it so satisfying as it all came together.

Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb - Jed & Octavius VFX by Digital Domain

What new personal challenges did this show set for you?

The bulk of my experience is in compositing – I was a compositing supervisor for years before becoming a VFX supervisor.  So I never had much exposure to animation – particularly character animation. This show gave me a lot more experience in that arena.

Working closely with our animation director, Phil Cramer, and animation lead, Frankie Stellato, I was exposed to both traditional keyframe hand-animated work, as well as Digital Domain’s new cutting edge Direct Drive facial animation system. This was a fantastic learning opportunity for me that I took full advantage of.

I was extraordinarily lucky to be a part of the fantastic team that put this film together. Across the entire spectrum – the executives and internal team at Fox, director Shawn Levy, production VFX supervisor Erik Nash, the entire team at Digital Domain, and our counterparts at other VFX facilities – I was lucky enough to get to work with old friends … and make some new ones as well. For me, the most important part of a show is the team of people I’m working with on a daily basis. We spend most of our waking lives at work in this business, and long weeks away from home, and to be surrounded by people who are supportive, collaborative, creative and downright fun to be around makes going to work every day a thoroughly enjoyable and satisfying experience.

Special thanks to Jonny Vale, Karl Williams, Adam Brown, Melissa Knight, Ellen Pasternack and Rita Cahill. Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb photographs TM and © 2014 Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation.  All rights reserved. Not for sale or duplication.

ADI Q&A – Cinefex 140 Extract

ADI Q&A with Tom Woodruff Jr. and Alec Gillis, by Joe Fordham - Cinefex 140

This final peek at our latest magazine issue, Cinefex 140, invites you into the company of Tom Woodruff Jr. and Alec Gillis., co-founders of Amalgamated Dynamics, Incorporated.

Woodruff and Gillis discuss their backgrounds in the burgeoning 1980s creature effects industry, early assignments at Stan Winston Studio, and their creative partnership that has spanned 25 years, encompassing Death Becomes Her, Starship Troopers, Tremors, multiple Alien films, and more recently Fire City: The Interpreter of Signs and Harbinger Down — a pair of independent monster movies, wrought with passion and crowdfunded resources, that mark Woodruff’s and Gillis’ feature directing debuts.

In this extract from Joe Fordham’s Q&A, the guys from ADI describe how their experiences on the 2011 prequel The Thing encouraged them to set up their popular YouTube channel:

Alec Gillis: The Thing director, Matthijs van Heijningen, was very interested in maintaining a practical foundation, but at some point they made the decision to replace the work. People often say, ‘You guys must have been heartbroken,’ and so on. Of course we were disappointed, because we thought we had done very good work, staying true to what Bottin and Carpenter had set up, while acknowledging the director’s and the studio’s needs.

Tom Woodruff Jr.: That was the impetus for going to YouTube. We were seeing a lot of negative comments online saying, ‘ADI screwed up The Thing.’ We felt that we’d done our best work, and so we thought, ‘Let’s put up some YouTube videos.’ We started with a Green Goblin prosthetic makeup test that we had created for Sam Raimi’s first Spider-Man. That got 50,000 hits in two weeks. Then we posted tests of our ‘hemocyte’ makeups that we did for Ridley Scott’s unmade I Am Legend. There are now 160 videos online – some effects that got cut from films, some behind the scenes.

Read the complete Q&A in Cinefex 140, which also features Interstellar, The Zero Theorem and Exodus: Gods and Kings.

All content copyright © 2014 Cinefex LLC. All rights reserved.

Exodus: Gods and Kings – Cinefex 140 Extract

"Exodus: Gods and Kings" - article by Jody Duncan, Cinefex 140

Here’s the third sampler from our latest magazine edition, Cinefex 140. In Exodus: Gods and Kings, Christian Bale, Sigourney Weaver and Aaron Paul star in director Ridley Scott’s retelling of the biblical account of Moses leading the Israelites out of bondage in Egypt.

Spain and Mexico stood in for Egypt throughout filming. Double Negative provided visual effects to imbue the film with a grandeur and epic scale befitting its source material, with additional effects support from MPC, The Senate, Method Studios and The Third Floor.

In this exclusive extract from Jody Duncan’s in-depth article, Gods and Kings, visual effects supervisor Peter Chiang talks about the creation of the film’s ancient locations:

Whether on stage or on location, sets were surrounded with greenscreen, enabling the crews at Double Negative and MPC – the show’s main vendors – as well as Lola, Method Studios and Peerless to composite in 1,300 BC vistas of the Nile Delta, the Pyramids and Mount Sinai in the distance. “We researched the time period extensively,” said visual effects supervisor Peter Chiang. “I also went up to Luxor and took a lot of photographs of existing temples and other architecture.

“Of course, the buildings as they are now don’t reflect the period because of decay and wearing. So we had to imagine what those structures would have looked like when they had just been built, and then introduce a bit of wearing and texture to keep them from looking fake. We drew a fine line between ‘new’ and what people understand as 1,300 BC architecture.”

Illustrations by concept illustrators working with Arthur Max and supervising art director Marc Homes developed the look and color palettes of the ancient world, infusing Memphis with a traditional sandstone look, and the newer, more modern Pi-Ramses with blacks and golds.

Read the complete article in Cinefex 140, which also features “Interstellar”, “The Zero Theorem” and a Q&A with Amalgamated Dynamics.

All content copyright © 2014 Cinefex LLC. All rights reserved.

The Zero Theorem – Cinefex 140 Extract

"The Zero Theorem - Nowhere Man" by Joe Fordham - Cinefex 140

In this second peek into our brand new issue, Cinefex 140, we look at The Zero Theorem, in which neurotic computer genius (Christoph Waltz) – employed by a vast futuristic company named Mancrom – attempts to find a mathematical formula that may lead to the meaning of life, but instead falls in love with a beautiful avatar (Mélanie Thierry) and slowly loses his mind.

Filmmaker Terry Gilliam brings his idiosyncratic visual flair to create a nightmarish technological world and phantasmagoric landscapes working with production designer David Warren, special effects supervisor Nick Allder, and visual effects supervisors Felix Lepadatu, Jonah Loop and Fredrik Nord at LenscareFX, Haymaker, The Chimney Pot Group and Bold Turtle Productions.

In the following extract from Joe Fordham’s in-depth article, Nowhere Man, Gilliam and special effects supervisor discuss the creation of one of the film’s most dramatic sets:

“The script description of the Neural Net Mainframe was a slick, high-tech room typical of sci-fi films,” Terry Gilliam recalled. “I thought, ‘Nah,’ and we went looking for locations. I had seen a photograph of a disused steel factory a couple of hours outside Bucharest. We went there, and in the middle of this room was this great round ridiculous-looking blast furnace that had a huge hole in its side. It was a horrible, awful thing, and I thought, ‘Oh, that’s much more fun!’ They talked me out of shooting there – we would have been there in the middle of winter, so it would have been a bit mad. And Dave Warren built a set of just more than a half round section of this structure. Everything else was greenscreen. It was my version of Metropolis.”

The Mainframe set consisted of a 1/5-horizontal slice of a central cylinder, with a gantry, walkway and multi-screen workstation. “We had colored liquids containing UV pigment bubbling through the set,” said special effects supervisor Nick Allder. “We lit those to give Terry some in-camera interactive glows. We also rigged a large mechanical cylinder that came out of the Mainframe wall like a big piston. That was on a carriage, and a pneumatic mechanism pushed that out, pulled it back in and rotated it.”

Read the complete article in Cinefex 140, which also features Interstellar, Exodus: Gods and Kings and a Q&A with Amalgamated Dynamics.

All content copyright © 2014 Cinefex LLC. All rights reserved.

Interstellar – Cinefex 140 Extract

"Interstellar - That Our Feet May Leave" by Jody Duncan - Cinefex 140

Issue 140 of Cinefex magazine contains in-depth articles on the visual effects of three of this year’s big movies, as well as a special Q&A with practical effects experts Tom Woodruff Jr. and Alec Gillis. Today and tomorrow, we’re giving you exclusive tasters from every article in the issue.

First up is Christopher Nolan’s epic space adventure Interstellar. The visual effects for this acclaimed film run the whole gamut, from New Deal Studios’ traditional minatures through to Double Negative dynamic space simulations – which were so sophisticated that visual effects supervisor Paul Franklin and scientific consultant Kip Thorne ended up presenting academic papers on what they’d learned while making the film to NASA’s Astrophysics Committee.

In this extract from Jody Duncan’s extensive article, That Our Feet May Leave, Nolan and Franklin discuss the methodology behind those all-important spacecraft shots:

The majority of shots of the spacecraft in space were realized with miniatures built and shot by New Deal Studios. Christopher Nolan is atypical among current directors of big-budget films in his preference for miniature photography, and nearly all of his films have featured miniature effects. “I believe that the audience has an absolute ability to discern animation from photography,” Nolan explained. “However sophisticated the animation, the audience eye can see the difference between something that is constructed from the animator’s mind and something that is real, that has light bouncing off of it and going through the lens of a real camera. There’s a wonderful quality to that.”

“Chris felt that this movie demanded the sort of tactile reality you get when you shoot a physical miniature, rather than attempting to do a ship entirely in CG,” added visual effects supervisor Paul Franklin. “We still created CG spacecraft for the atmospheric entry sequences and for a sequence where you see a spacecraft being swept up into a wave; but the bulk of our spacecraft shots in space were achieved with miniatures.”

Read the complete article in Cinefex 140, which also features The Zero Theorem, Exodus: Gods and Kings and a Q&A with Amalgamated Dynamics.

All content copyright © 2014 Cinefex LLC. All rights reserved.

The Visual Effects of Paddington

Paddington - visual effects by Framestore

Paddington is more than just a bear. He’s a British icon. Yet, as established in Michael Bond’s original children’s book of 1958, this polite-but-accident-prone little fellow started out as a stranger to the country’s shores, having arrived at Paddington Station (from which he took his name) from Darkest Peru. Shortly thereafter, he was adopted by the Brown family … and in time by an entire nation.

More than twenty books later, Bond continues to publish his Paddington stories, ensuring the continuing popularity of his marmalade-loving bear. Over the years, Paddington has been illustrated by artists including Peggy Fortnum, Fred Banbery and Ivor Wood, but it wasn’t until 1975 that he sprang into animated life in the BBC TV series Paddington.

Now he’s hit the big screen in Studio Canal’s feature adaptation Paddington, directed by Paul King. The film’s 760 visual effects shots – 570 of which feature Paddington himself – were delivered by Framestore, with a 350-strong team spread across their London and Montreal studios.

Paddington meets the Brown family

“Paddington” was shot at Elstree Studios and on location in London and Costa Rica, which doubles for Peru. “The film is a kind of a love letter to London. It’s always raining, in contrast to sunny Peru, which lends a huge amount to the mood and the visuals.” – Andy Kind, VFX supervisor, Framestore London.

The Essence of Paddington

One of the biggest challenges facing the Framestore team was introducing Paddington to a global moviegoing audience, while remaining true to the well-established character loved by generations of British readers.

“It was a big responsibility to find a photorealistic design for a character that people have so clear in their minds,” said Framestore’s animation supervisor Pablo Grillo. “We were keen to bring Paddington into the real world so he would sit into the live action and be easy for people to connect with. We wanted him to be anatomically correct, which meant we needed more detail compared with the simplicity of the original illustrations, which often had just two dots for eyes. We had to think about things like his wet nose, teeth and muzzle, but still make sure that what we created carried that simple essence of the original Paddington.”

As well as referencing the original illustrations, the Framestore team also took cues from his television incarnation. “In the stop-motion BBC TV series, Paddington would often remain quite still before doing something that took you by surprise, and we tried to maintain that spirit in the way we crafted the performance. Rather than filling every moment with movement and unnecessary detail, we would just run a little wind through the fur to keep him alive and really hold some quiet moments.”

Watch the featurette Paddington: From Page to Screen:

To learn more about what it took to bring Paddington to the screen, I spoke to Christian Kaestner, VFX supervisor and Head of 2D at Framestore in Montreal.

Paddington – VFX Q&A with Christian Kaestner

How did you get involved with Paddington?

Paddington was a project that had been started while I was still working in our London office. I’d worked previously with Andy Kind and Pablo Grillo on Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, and it was the combination of a great character project with a fantastic team that made me want to get my hands on this. I’d just finished Edge of Tomorrow in Montreal when the opportunity came up.

What was your general approach to the visual effects?

A few years back, we started working closely with the director, Paul King, and his team to shape and develop Paddington’s film debut for the big screen. Countless sketches, animation and render tests were part of our early involvement with this adorable, furry little bear. In our London office Pablo and Andy spearheaded the creative development, assisted with the shoot planning and of course the VFX shoot supervision. Additionally, Tim Webber got involved in the shoot as second unit director.

After the filming had wrapped, we started to narrow down the edit by blocking out scenes based on previs that we’d worked out with Paul King. At this stage both our London and Montreal facilities were involved with layout, blocking and animation. At the same time were also finessing the character and photorealistic look of Paddington.

Pablo Grillo talks about the challenges of working with such an iconic character. Did you feel the pressure too?

Bringing any CG character to life in a believable way is always a challenge, but taking on such a famous, well-loved and established character like Paddington makes it exponentially harder. We obviously wanted to stay true to the character and not create something from scratch that the audience wouldn’t be able recognise.

At the same time, there was no live-action version of Paddington that we could match to. The creative process became an in depth exercise in character development, working closely with the director and even Paddington’s creator, Michael Bond, to ensure that we translated this wonderful character to the big screen to everyone’s satisfaction. We are very pleased and proud of how we were able to bring Paddington to life.

How closely did you work with practical and special effects on set to integrate the animated character into the scene?

Framestore worked very closely with Paul King, the director of photography, Erik Wilson, and the art department to ensure we could really integrate Paddington into every scene. We carefully looked at all the shots and the vision that Paul had for the scene. We discussed in detail what was the intention and how we could combine the live-action photography and CG character most efficiently.

This obviously was a huge benefit for us and the project because we could plan carefully, helping the budget distribution. We could bring all our experience to the table and work out how we might save a little here and there, enabling us to concentrate on sequences or shots that were really important to Paul.

Paul’s vision for Paddington was hardly a full CG visual effects extravaganza – quite the opposite. We wanted to be clever about the shoot, get as much as we could in camera and focus our visual effects efforts on the star of movie: Paddington.

One of the great examples of combining practical on-set work with Paddington’s character is when Paddington is licking Judy’s face in the kitchen. It was much more visually effective for us to shoot the licking of the face as a practical effect and animate to Judy’s performance, rather than creating this from scratch in CG.

Pablo Grillo creeps on set to wipe a paintbrush the size and shape of Paddington’s tongue across the face of Judy Brown (Madeleine Harris), leaving the perfect, slobber-like mark.

Before and after. Pablo Grillo creeps on set to wipe a paintbrush the size and shape of Paddington’s tongue across the face of Judy Brown (Madeleine Harris), leaving the perfect, slobber-like mark.

So did you keep CG environments to a minimum?

I wouldn’t go as far as saying there was no digital matte painting or CG work in the movie, but for the most part environments and set augmentation were supportive in nature and hopefully as invisible as possible. We built partial medium-distance CG for some of the Natural History Museum environment and combined it with digital matte paintings of the London skyline. Additionally, we used Nuke’s particle system to dress in the snow here and there, to enhance the on-set snow and provide consistency throughout the sequence.

How much were you affected by the recasting of the voice talent from Colin Firth to Ben Whishaw?

Obviously, any creative change has – and should have – an impact on the final visual result. Paddington’s character with regard to his live-action appearance had been long established by the time the voice changed from Colin to Ben, and there was never any intent to change Paddington’s character drastically. Design and the core appearance were not affected too much, although obviously there were new characteristics we had to adapt to regarding performance and pace. But they were slight alterations rather than drastic changes.

What’s your favourite sequence from the film?

There are so many lovely sequences of Paddington in this movie, but one of my personal favourites is the “Lost and Found” scene on the station platform after Paddington arrives in London. It’s the sequence where Paddington first meets the Browns … and a pigeon. There’s so much attention to detail in this sequence, because not only does it further establish Paddington’s character, but it also really establishes the bond between Paddington and Mrs Brown – and of course the audience.

How did you go about putting the “Lost and Found” sequence together?

We began by blocking out the sequence to establish the rhythm and feel. It had to be emotional, yet maintain the wit and humour of the rest of the movie. We spent quite a lot of time getting the timings right – hitting the beats of the sequence – before we went into more detailed performance animation.

Once all the timings and beats were right we went into more detailed facial animation to really establish the emotional context of the scene. The audience can clearly follow the thought process and emotions that Paddington goes through, it’s a bit sad and funny at the same time, which really helps to build a connection with the viewer.

In this sequence we also feature an additional CG character that appears throughout the movie – the pigeon that Paddington interacts with. The pigeon doesn’t speak and performs only through its actions, yet there’s a clear conversation between Paddington and the pigeon before the Brown arrive.

Marmalade-loving Paddington tears open an orange

Paddington rips apart an orange. The outside of the fruit is CG to facilitate interaction with the animated bear, but the interior is based on live action footage shot in Framestore’s capture lab. The two sources were combined in Nuke, with FX juice and spray completing the shot.

What did you learn from working on Paddington?

That creating a believable live-action CG character remains an incredibly hard thing to achieve. But it’s still just as rewarding to see final result on the big screen.

In this age of motion-capture, it’s worth pointing out that Paddington was entirely keyframe animated, and I think the performance is amazing. We had a lot of reference from the voice talent, performer Javier Marzan, Paul King and Pablo Grillo to help us bring Paddington to life. This allowed for complete control over Paddington’s acting, enabling us to direct every little detail of his performance.

Special thanks to Stephanie Bruning and Rob Goodway. Paddington pictures copyright © 2014 by StudioCanal Limited and courtesy of Framestore.

Now Showing – Cinefex 140

Cinefex 140 - From the Editor's Desk

Cinefex 140 is here! The latest issue of the leading magazine for visual effects professionals and enthusiasts is now available, and features behind-the-scenes analysis of the latest films by leading moviemakers.

Headlining this quarter’s edition is Interstellar, Christopher Nolan’s grand space adventure starring Matthew McConaughey, Anne Hathaway and Jessica Chastain. You won’t want to miss Jody Duncan’s in-depth article, That Our Feet May Leave, which explores every corner of the film’s remarkable suite of effects, from Scott Fisher’s on-set special effects, through the various practical effects by New Deal Studios, to Double Negative‘s stunning visual effects.

Jody’s second article examines the visual effects of Ridley Scott’s Exodus: Gods and Kings. This latest retelling of the story of Moses in Egypt stars Christian Bale, Sigourney Weaver and Aaron Paul, and boasts spectacular effects sequences led by Double Negative, with support from MPC, The Senate, Method Studios and The Third Floor.

Our third article is Joe Fordham’s Nowhere Man, which analyses the latest film from idiosyncratic filmmaker Terry Gilliam: The Zero Theorem. This mind-bending fantasy about a neurotic computer genius (Christoph Waltz) who falls in love with a beautiful avatar (Mélanie Thierry) is a feast for the eyes, thanks to the remarkable work of production designer David Warren, special effects supervisor Nick Allder, and visual effects supervisors Felix Lepadatu, Jonah Loop and Fredrik Nord at LenscareFX, Haymaker, The Chimney Pot Group and Bold Turtle Productions.

Last up is Joe’s Q&A session with Tom Woodruff Jr. and Alec Gillis, veteran practical effects specialists whose creative partnership at their company Amalgamated Dynamics, Incorporated has spanned 25 years. Tom and Alec talk to Joe about the early days, when they worked on films including Starship Troopers, Tremors, and multiple Alien films, and comes right up to date with their respective directorial debuts on the crowdfunded features Fire City: The Interpreter of Signs and Harbinger Down.

So what does Cinefex editor-in-chief Jody Duncan have to say about the movies covered in our latest issue? Let’s find out:

Jody Duncan – From The Editor’s Desk

It is always particularly gratifying for me to work on an issue in which we’re covering movies or filmmakers about which I am passionate. This was such an issue.

Having written a book on The Dark Knight Trilogy with Cinefex associate publisher Janine Pourroy a couple of years ago, the respect and admiration I’d had for Christopher Nolan ever since seeing the remarkable Memento grew to cosmic proportions. I’ve never been a ‘fan-boy,’ (which, I believe, has been an advantage in my job as editor of Cinefex), but I have some fan-boy inclinations when it comes to Nolan. He is not only a brilliantly original writer and director, he is – by all accounts – a man of exceedingly fine character.

So, my excitement level rose at the prospect of covering Nolan’s Interstellar. I knew that I would, most likely, interview him, as he’s been generous with Cinefex in that regard. I knew that there would be miniatures involved, which makes for compelling text and images. And I knew that the movie itself would be interesting and different. The man and the movie exceeded my expectations.

Issue 140 offered cherries atop the delicious Interstellar sundae. A Q&A with Alec Gillis and Tom Woodruff, Jr. of Amalgamated Dynamics, Incorporated by Joe Fordham was, again, a chance to talk about practical effects. Having interviewed both Alec and Tom numerous times in the past, I knew they would make for a fascinating conversation. They did not disappoint.

Ridley Scott is another filmmaker I admire tremendously, and I got to see him in action as ‘presenter’ at an early press screening of selected scenes from Exodus: Gods and Kings. He encouraged us to gather in the middle of the theater, and then he sat on the arm of an aisle seat, very laid back, very un-showmanlike, and gave pithy and funny little introductions to each scene we were about to view. He charmed us all.

Finally, Issue 140 features coverage of the fascinating Terry Gilliam’s latest project, The Zero Theorem. Joe Fordham interviewed Gilliam, and his sparkling commentary runs throughout Joe’s story.

Nolan, Scott, Gilliam, Gillis, Woodruff. Now there’s a Cinefex issue!

After an introduction like that, I’m sure you’re all ready for launch. So strap yourselves in. The boosters are primed and this sucker is all set to break through the stratosphere. Stow all loose items, turn off your cells and spit out your gum. Are you ready for Cinefex 140? Let’s rock and roll!

VFX Videos of the Week 12-12-14

YardbirdHeading this week’s selection of VFX videos is Yardbird, a short film from Bridle Path Films directed by Michael Spiccia. It stars Mitzi Ruhlmann as young girl Ruby, who in facing up to a gang of scrapyard bullies is forced to exercise her strange and disturbing powers.

Yardbird uses both special and visual effects in the best way possible – to underpin the story without taking centre-stage. SFX are byPaul Norton at Portfire Studios, with VFX provided by Fin Design & Effects (CG supervisors Stuart White & Steve Oakley), Canopy VFX (VFX supervisor Travis Hogg) and Fuel (VFX supervisor Dave Morley):

Home Sweet Home

Here’s another short: the charming animated film Home Sweet Home, by Pierre Clenet, Alejandro Diaz, Romain Mazevet and Stéphane Paccolat. It’s a buddy movie starring two suburban houses which decide to abandon their foundations and explore the world. Some great character work and gorgeous compositions made this a festival favourite, and resulted in its being awarded Best Computer Animated Short Film Award at Siggraph 2014:

Next up is High Quality Capture of Eyes, which describes an improved approach to the motion capture and modelling of those fable windows of the soul. This video is from Disney Research, and was presented as part of a paper at SIGGRAPH Asia 2104. According to the Disney press release: “To faithfully reproduce all the intricacies of the human eye we propose a novel capture system that is capable of accurately reconstructing all the visible parts of the eye: the white sclera, the transparent cornea and the non-rigidly deforming colored iris.”

Most people would agree that faithful representation of the human eye is one of the keys to convincing character animation. If this technique delivers what it promises, it’s another step towards the other side of the uncanny valley:

There are some big old movie trailers doing the rounds this week. First up – and my personal favourite – is The Walk, out next year and starring Joseph Gordon-Levitt as tightrope walker Philippe Petit, who famously strung a wire between the twin roofs of the World Trade Center and set out to walk the gap. I’ll be first in line for any new Robert Zemeckis film, and if this stunning teaser is anything to go by, his knack of mythologising both time and location looks set to produce something truly memorable. Visual effects in this trailer are by Atomic Fiction, who are currently hard at work on the rest of the film, with Kevin Baillie supervising:

This second choice is also my favourite of the week (who says I can’t have two favourites?). It’s the teaser trailer for Mad Max: Fury Road. This looks just gloriously insane, with high-octane stunts, a jaw-dropping sandstorm, and Tom Hardy and Charlize Theron looking utterly at home in George Miller’s fetishistic future world. VFX are by Iloura and Method Studios. Me, I can’t wait for May 2015:

Oh, and I have a third favourite trailer (so sue me). This is Inside Out, the upcoming animated feature from Disney Pixar. It’s a scene in which we get to see inside the heads of an average suburban family as tuck into their evening meal. The whole thing is beautifully observed, perfectly executed and laugh-out-loud funny. As my Cinefex colleague Joe Fordham remarked: “Nobody out-Pixars Pixar”:

Rounding out this week’s selection is a rare promotional trailer for Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey, courtesy of Eyes on Cinema. With its portentous voiceover, heavy reliance on production art and intriguing slit-scan test footage by Douglas Trumbull, this one’s a truly nostalgic novelty:

That’s all for this week. Last week’s VFX video with the most votes was A Cup of Tea at Engine House VFX. Which is your favourite from this week’s selection? Make your choice right now – or suggest a video of your own – and get voting!