It’s a wrap! Actually, it’s more than a wrap – the new issue of Cinefex is now officially out on general release!
Issue 139 features in-depth articles on the visual effects of Edge of Tomorrow, in which Major William Cage (Tom Cruise) is trapped in a seemingly endless cycle of life and death as he tries to unravel the mystery behind a devastating alien invasion. Then there’s Marvel’s Guardians of the Galaxy, the smash hit space movie starring the funkiest fellowship of interstellar misfits ever to take to the heavens.
Next comes Dawn of the Planet of the Apes, the latest film in the rebooted franchise, which delivers not only spectacle but also high emotion, thanks to astonishing ape performances created by a cutting-edge blend of motion capture and animation. Last but not least is X-Men: Days of Future Past, in which Wolverine (Hugh Jackman) plunges back through time to save the world of the future, with the help of earlier incarnations of his familiar mutant allies.
Here’s Cinefex editor-in-chief Jody Duncan with her thoughts about the movies covered in our latest issue:
Jody Duncan – From The Editor’s Desk
What struck me when putting together Cinefex’s 139th issue is how much I enjoyed all of the films it covers.
Take Edge of Tomorrow. I recall sitting in a small screening room near the Warner Bros. lot to see an early screening, and thinking: “Oh, good! We have a winner here!” And I thought Dawn of the Planet of the Apes and X-Men: Days of Future Past were among the best offerings of those respective franchises.
The biggest surprise, though, was Guardians of the Galaxy. I’m not a comic book gal, generally, nor am I a fan of raccoons, genetically enhanced or not (having often encountered the au naturel type in the middle of the night in my own backyard, where they regularly eat my grapefruit and hiss at my dog). So, when I met Gregg Shay at the Marvel offices on the Disney lot to see an early screening, my expectations were not high.
But, oh, what a time we had! Gregg and I sat in that little screening room, alone except for the editor running the Avid, and we howled! The film had charm, and laughs, and a fresh perspective on the whole “galactic adventurer” genre.
I even loved the raccoon.
Thanks, Jody. Now, please take your seats, set your cell to silent and prepare yourselves for a high definition trip behind the scenes of some of your favourite films of the summer. There’s thrills! There’s spills! Most important of all, there’s the best visual effects coverage you’ll get on this or any planet!
Adapted from the 1993 children’s novel by Lois Lowry, The Giver is a coming-of-age story set in a futuristic utopian society known as the Community. Having turned its back on war and suffering, the Community idealises the concept of “Sameness”, a state in which emotion and memory – as well as differences in physical appearance – are suppressed. Elected to the honoured position of “Receiver of Memory”, a boy called Jonas has his mind opened to a past that has until now remained a mystery, thus triggering a journey into enlightenment and, perhaps, escape.
Method Studios was responsible for the majority of the visual effects work on The Giver, delivering around 300 shots. Their contribution included creating the main Community environment and a sequence in which Jonas is pursued by a remote drone, as well as a number of one-off shots.
Method also shared assets with Mr X. Inc. in New York for additional shots as the project progressed. Method’s VFX supervisor Mark Breakspear was on set for most of the production shoot, supporting overall VFX supervisor Robert Grasmere and VFX producer Pablo Molles. The Giver was directed by Philip Noyce.
Watch Method Studios’ VFX breakdown reel from The Giver:
Mark Breakspear Talks The Giver
Thanks for sharing your experiences on The Giver, Mark. Can you begin with how you first got involved with the show?
Method Studios has a long and excellent track record on environment-type visual effects. And we had previously worked with production visual effects supervisor Robert Grasmere on Salt, which was also directed by Philip Noyce.
Robert reached out to Method early on. We talked about the kind of work that would be required and the general approaches that would make most sense, given what we knew about the story at that time. It was early days and we didn’t yet have a production designer – Ed Verreaux joined soon after – but we did have some very early concept drawings for the Community. We focused on how we would create that world, based on the book and how Philip wanted to take the look.
The key concept we had to deal with was that of “Sameness”: the idea that no one person, and no one object, should stand out from the others. People wore similar clothes; homes all looked the same; even the geography of their world was mirrored along a central spine.
We met several times in LA to talk through the major VFX shots: how best to shoot them and, more importantly, how to afford them. VFX producer Pablo Molles joined the show and we began to plan the shoot, deciding how Robert and I would oversee the VFX shots, and how the shots would be turned over so as to be ready for any previews and trailers that might come up.
The futuristic Community settlement sits atop a 10km-wide mesa surrounded by cloud.
How did you go about designing the futuristic environment of the Community?
At the beginning of the project, the initial brief asked for the Community to be located on a 1km-wide mesa surrounded by impenetrable clouds. Ninety percent of the movie was to take place in this location, so its believability was essential. The production would shoot in many different South African locations, so the digital environment needed not only to be photographically convincing, but also able to work alongside multiple locations and blend in without trace.
The art department provided us with an initial layout of the Community, consisting of all the key landmarks and natural elements: trees, grassland, lakes and so on. While shooting was underway, the team built a basic previz model. On viewing this, the client quickly decided that a 1km diameter mesa was not large enough. We tried several scales, going up to 20km, and finally settling on 10km.
The Community part environment – original plate
The Community part environment – final composite
What visual references did you use?
Philip sent us reference of “bits” of places – parks, homes, forests, fields, roads, views – and we used them to develop a bigger picture of what the Community would look like. It was the superlative of many locations all rolled into one, but always based on the “Sameness” concept.
That worked well, but often what makes one corner of a park look really great is its relationship to another section of the park that doesn’t look as good. The yin and yang of a place. When you strip away the yang, the yin just doesn’t have the same pizazz. CG Supervisor Anthony Zwartouw and Matte Painting Lead Jeremy Hoey built a pretty amazing system not only for building the levels of detail in the Community, but also allowing for changes to be made without having to go back to the drawing board.
Also, the Community is artificially flat. This was something we fought over because perfect flatness didn’t look logical at this huge scale. Production was confident that this would play to the “Sameness” feel and, in the end, I believe it worked. But it required a huge amount of detail.
How did you go about building the assets?
The Community environment needed to be full CG, as it would be featured in over 100 shots, ranging from wide shots of the entire mesa to helicopter shots skimming over buildings. The design progressed over several months from a natural, random environment – scattered wooded areas and grasslands with buildings mingled between – to a highly structured, geometric landscape that was almost completely symmetrical.
This posed an interesting challenge, because one of the methods we normally use to create realism is to introduce natural randomness into our work. But the gardens of the Community were all very ordered, with trees gridded and equidistant. So we developed scales of randomness, giving the illusion of rigid symmetry from a distance, but up close revealing the uniqueness of the individual trees and pathways. This allowed the fully practical locations – which were anything but symmetrical – to blend in with our digital Community.
How big was the final Community model?
Given the range of shots we had to create, we needed a way of populating the environment with high-resolution assets on a huge scale. This amounted to half a trillion polygons overall. The assets team, led by Kyeyong Peck, created 40 types of trees (around a million polygons each), plants, street furniture, dozens of buildings, people and the landscape itself. The latter comprised cliffs, urban areas around the main structure called the Odeon, manicured parks and the main living areas.
The Odeon – basic geometry
The Odeon – fully rendered
Did that give you a rendering headache?
V-Ray is our main render engine at Method, so we used a plugin called V-Ray-Scatter, and Houdini, to meet our specific layout requirements. Scatter enabled us to multiply an asset thousands of times without hitting the usual memory limit. Scatter also had tools to vary the assets in scale, rotation and colour, so to not create glaring repetition. The environment lighting team, led by Jon Reynolds, took on a lot of this work on top of their usual lighting duties.
For layout, we developed a system in which our DMP department created a graphical map to define asset placement on the environment. This was then fed into Houdini for processing, and placement geometry would be spat out into Maya, where Scatter would apply the asset geometry at render time. The cloud layer was simulated in Houdini by the FX team, led by Ian Farnsworth. It was set up to encircle the entire mesa. This enabled us to put the camera pretty much where we wanted.
It sounds like a monumental task.
The Community was huge, I mean huge! We had millions and millions of trees in that thing – all different and all modelled down to leaf detail – thousands of lamp posts, benches, people, houses, bikes, motorbikes … The details mattered. It wasn’t an over-built place, but our wide shots showed every little detail and, because we didn’t know which areas would be featured early enough, we had to build everything.
In the end, this allowed Philip to create new shots that the story needed, like close fly-overs of the houses with people going about their daily lives below. It was a daunting build, but Anthony’s CG team pulled it off and then some.
Our biggest shots of the Community weren’t even known about until a month before the deadline. It wasn’t bad planning – it’s just that the cut was changing subtly. There was a need to tell part of the story in more detail, and a picture is worth a thousand words. In just one month, we turned around five extra huge Community shots, all full CG with people, vehicles, clouds … everything.
A remote drone catches up with Jonas during the film’s climactic chase sequence.
Tell me about the drone chase that happens near the end of the film. Was the drone fully CG, or did you work with practical elements?
A drone was built on set, and initially it was decided that the practical model would just need “enhancing” and the addition of side wings – something both Robert and I had one perpetually raised eyebrow about throughout the shoot! It’s not that it was a bad design. It just restricted how we shot things because it was so big and heavy; you could only shoot it upside down for the most part and never move it around.
So Robert and I hatched a plan to completely replace it in post and, as we went along, started to shoot more and more shots entirely on greenscreen. The reason it wasn’t planned that way from the start was that the drone initially had a far smaller part to play. As things developed – and long after the budget to build it practically had been assigned and spent – the story grew, and the drone needed to do more than was originally thought. If nothing else, in some shots, it was great to have the correct shadows fall on the practical object, and it was a great tracking object for matchmove. But, in retrospect, it should have been just a simple box on a greenscreen.
FX simulations for the hovering drone.
Can you describe how the drone chase plays out on screen?
During the sequence, Jonas (Brenton Thwaites) is escaping from the Community, pursued by a drone being piloted remotely by his former friend Asher (Cameron Monaghan). The drone catches up with Jonas, and pulls him up in to the air ready to drop him from a great height.
Many of the shots done with Jonas and the practical drone were quite static, despite being “in the air”. We spent a lot of time replacing the practical drone with the fully CG one, adding in new movements such as pitch and yaw, air compression from the suction devices that lift Jonas, and engine rotation. The end result was to take a sequence that lacked visual energy and give it a huge boost.
We spent a couple of days shooting motion capture at The Capture Lab in Vancouver to add a CG version of Jonas into some shots. Our digital Jonas looked great – the digital double team, led by Chris Norpchen, did a fantastic job of getting all the hair and cloth detail in and working well. To top it all off, it actually looked like the actor. You assume the scanning and texture maps would take care of this, but it doesn’t always work out that way. When you look at the shots and wonder which ones are digital Jonas, you know it worked out well.
The drone chase – basic geometry laid over the original background plate.
The drone chase – final composite.
How did you shoot the scene in which the Chief Elder – played by Meryl Streep – appears as a hologram?
Early on in the production, Method used The Embassy in Vancouver to create previz for this key sequence. Due to schedule issues, we knew we would not have access to both the location and Ms Streep at the same time, so we planned to combine them together later on. That meant shooting motion control, so we decided to justify the extra cost by creating more visually complex shots.
The key shot occurs when the Chief Elder appears in hologram form for the first time. We designed a move that starts off in the same volume the Chief Elder will eventually occupy, and pulls up through her body. It’s a neat effect that shows her body building up towards us as the move progresses.
Our FX team, led by Ian Farnsworth, designed the hologram look, while our set layout team, led by lead matte painter Jeremy Hoey, created the complex set plans needed to allow motion control in the two different locations. Working with General Lift, CG artist Christian Emond created camera moves that could be imported in to the motion control rig, building a hugely successful system for future motion control shots. General Lift provided the motion control system and despite our not sleeping up to, during and for a few days after, the whole thing came off without a hitch!
How long were you working on “The Giver”?
I started work on the show in May 2013, and finished in July 2014. The shoot was from September to December 2013. Turnover happened just after Christmas in 2013 through to February 2014. We had several previews, a couple of trailers and the overall VFX team hit a maximum peak of around 70 people. Matchmove and roto were done both in and out of house, and all shots were reviewed remotely over CineSync. Method Studios had regular calls with Robert Grasmere, who was in New York with Philip Noyce and the editorial team.
How do you feel looking back at the production now?
The Giver reminded me that details matter. The whole team at Method Studios did an amazing job of putting this show together. Our industry spends a lot of time talking about the artistry and the crazy hours spent putting those images together, but this movie was also made with the help and dedication of all those producers, digital production managers and coordinators who, after the artist team has gone home, stay to upload, download, prep, and make sure the things we spend so much time doing, actually get seen by the clients. My biggest thanks goes out to them.
Also, the on-set team in South Africa was superb. I was worried that shooting so far away would present challenges in finding on-set wranglers and coordinators, but luckily I was very wrong. And South Africa is beautiful. I mean absolutely stunning. I was amazingly lucky to spend time on its northern border, flying drones up and down Augrabies Gorge. It felt like we were on another planet.
What does the future hold for practical creature effects?
Ah, was there ever a question more likely to raises the hackles of fans of old-school special effects? Or to cause a look of blank bemusement to cross the face of the average moviegoer? Ever since Jurassic Park, argument has raged over which is better: a CG dinosaur or its mechanical equivalent? Whenever the issue is raised, emotions run high; discussing it at all is only marginally safer than poking a nest of snakes.
But is it an issue? Is it valid even to ask the question at all? Isn’t it time we rejected all that “either/or” nonsense and concentrated on simply getting the job done in the best possible way?
There’s only one way to get a decent answer: ask the experts. So that’s what I’ve done. I put my question to a group of top professionals from the field of practical effects, left them to ponder … and then stood well back.
You want to know what the future holds for practical creature effects? You’re about to find out.
“At Weta Workshop, we very much believe there is still a dynamic place for physical creature effects in the entertainment industry. While there has been a huge shift towards CG creatures over the last ten years, there are still directors who are interested in utilising more traditional, real-world effect solutions for characters in their films.
“There is no doubt that films such as the latest Planet of the Apes, with work by Weta Digital, give a clear indication how extraordinary characters can be fully realised through CG, but there remains a very compelling reason to have real actors in prosthetics and creature costumes on set to create particular characters for the right project. A great example is the recent blockbuster Guardians of the Galaxy, which uses a huge ensemble cast of aliens of which, I believe, only three are digital. Here is a wonderful use of traditional makeup and creature effects (created by a truly superb and world class team) to do something absolutely extraordinary.
“Owning a physical effects company, I have to believe there will always be some demand by an audience and the directing community for the wonderful attributes of practical creature effects and makeup. It may become niche, but just look at the way stop-motion animation continues to have a presence, delivering some of the most engaging and beautiful films of the last ten years, such as Fantastic Mr. Fox, ParaNorman and Coraline. In the same way, those wonderful monster makeups that were pioneered by so many greats in the early days of filmmaking can still have power today.”
Richard Taylor and Mike Asquith of Weta Workshop study a Bilbo scale-double makeup design sculpture for “The Hobbit”
“The answer to your question can be easily determined with the use of a crystal ball …!
“The method of producing VFX and character work is usually determined by the studio, the VFX supervisor, and the director. A great deal depends on the director. Films like Hellboy 2, The Wolfman, and The Hobbit all employed a mix of technologies that was decided during the preproduction design process.
“The current spate of scripts we’re seeing requires an unbridled quotient of spectacle. Current production methodologies dictate that you spend as little time on the set as possible – it’s preferable to just push the issues downstream and “fix it in post”. Given all the cash these recent VFX-heavy films have scored – Godzilla, Planet of the Apes, Ninja Turtles, Transformers – I think the die is cast.
“Frankly I’m not so sure there are any significant demographics to indicate a real ground-swell movement toward practical. Currently, studios tend to just go with the “let’s do it all CG” bag because it’s the flavor of the day, and god forbid you’d want to go against the prevailing trends in a corporate climate. Ain’t gonna happen.
“There will continue to be the anomalies like Beasts of the Southern Wild, where budgetary issues force smart, low-budget approaches. In that case, VFX that drove the story in a very economical way were pulled off with a fine level of execution. For the same reasons, there’s still a good amount of practical stuff going on for TV. Hopefully that will continue.
“There are still skilled folks out there who know how to do this practical stuff. Let’s hope there can be enough work to keep their knowledge base from falling into atrophy, lest we go the way of those ancients of yore who built the Pyramids and the Mayan temples. We couldn’t pull that off today.
“SO! To answer your question: the future lies with extraterrestrials who tell us how to make stuff. And crystal balls. I think those are the way to go. Weird magic, no? (That’s what it’s all about anyhow, aint it?)”
Phil Tippett supervised the creature shop on “Return of the Jedi”. He is currently supervising the dinosaurs of “Jurassic World”.
“Fans seem to love practical creature FX, as do many directors, but studios tend to promote the near-exclusive use of digital imagery. This has led to an audience belief that the look of CG equates to a “big Hollywood” look.
“While I don’t like not being invited to the party, being regarded as a PFX pariah has an upside. PFX are becoming more unique, less corporate and edgier than mass-produced CG FX. While I miss the days when the aesthetics of PFX artists like Rob Bottin, Rick Baker and Stan Winston drove the look of the creature work, I can still appreciate the scope of today’s big pixel-fueled VFX orgies. Whether you think modern VFX films are hollow, overblown corporate sputum, or a dazzling nexus of art and technology, doesn’t really matter: they sell.
“Of course, most fans don’t really care what technique is employed, as long as the movie is good and the effect looks cool. It doesn’t even need to look real, just cool. So there’s no need to argue which technique is better. They’re just tools used to build a film. If you’re constructing a house, is a nail gun better than a table saw?
“Here at ADI, we believe in the mixed bag approach – we try to promote the strengths of both techniques. The frustration arises when there’s an effort to suppress or eliminate techniques as a matter of corporate policy. It’d be nice if the new Star Wars movies had more PFX in them, or if Mr. Del Toro and Mr. Favreau swayed studios towards PFX, but I can’t wait around for that to happen. I plan to keep making modest movies like Harbinger Down that rely on PFX. If the audience responds positively, the PFX resurgence will grow. If not, we’ll join the theramin and become a faint echo from a quaint bygone era.”
“Of course there is a future for Practical Effects. Hey, they provide a spontaneous, tactile quality, an actual in-the-scene feeling. They provide not only a visual reference for an actor but something to actually perform with. In Real Steel, for example, having actual robots for the young actor to work with was essential.”
Legacy Effects created partial and complete suits for the “Iron Man” films and “Avengers Assemble”, used both on camera and as reference for the visual effects teams.
“I have never wavered from my position that practical effects will always be relevant. The huge pendulum swing that occurred over the past two decades in favor of digital effects – where practical effects would have been more effective – has lost its momentum and is beginning to swing the other way. This discussion has raged for a long time, but the proof is in the meetings I take weekly with young, upcoming filmmakers. The dialogue in those meetings is the same, time and time again. They want their creatures to be practical.
“They need the tactile accessibility for not only their audiences, but also for their cast members. Practical effects are emotionally engaging on a level that we can immediately relate to. When it comes to organic, living characters, pixels cannot stand in for molecules. Digital effects have their place and they are here to stay, but the prevailing sensibility among filmmakers is that practical effects should have never taken a back seat. I agree with them.
“I feel that when an artist touches clay, or paint, or any other tactile medium with their hands, they impart a measure of their soul into their creation. There is passion and life and an undeniable soulfulness that’s clear to the human mind. Their weight and presence are not an illusion, and that is something that we all recognize on both a primal and an intellectual level. I feel no greater joy, creatively, than when I stand back and look at something I have been sculpting or building with my own hands, and see the piece claim its place in the tactile universe.”
Russel Lukich of Spectral Motion works on a parasitic “roly-poly” for “Pacific Rim”.
“One of the many questions I get asked frequently – aside from if I have fun on Halloween – is how VFX has affected the world of special makeup and creature effects. This sparks two feelings. One is how frustrating this often-asked question is. The second is how much I enjoy working with VFX, and utilizing their tools and art to enhance ours.
“It all started with Jurassic Park. When we saw that first shot of the dinosaur walking across the screen, we looked at one another and said, “We are extinct”. After numerous discussions among the shop owners, it seemed there were three ways to deal with this potential new threat:
Get out of doing special makeup effects and join the digital revolution, which a few shops did. They are now extinct.
Fight the digital revolution and convince ourselves that anything VFX can do, we can do practically.
Find a way to integrate what we do best, and work with VFX to create a brand new magic trick for filmmakers and audiences.
“We at KNB EFX Group chose option 3.
“At first it was a bit of a struggle, as certain film makers wanted the new “state of the art” way of doing things, even if the practical solution was the better way to go. For example, when we worked on Little Nicky, the director went digital for a certain gag. If we’d been allowed to accomplish the effect via special makeup, it would have looked heaps better, and not been the strange, floating mess that ended up in the final film.
“There was grandstanding from both sides. We’d come to set with mechanical puppets, set them up and shoot a few takes, only to see the VFX supervisor whisper something in the director’s ear. The next moment we’d hear, “OK, lets move the puppet and get a plate shot, just in case”. Well, you can guess what happened next …
“When we were awarded The Chronicles Of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch And The Wardrobe in 2004, we knew this would only work if we all came together and formed a team. Luckily our VFX supervisor Dean Wright and Bill Westenhofer from the late Rhythm & Hues felt the same way. Take Otmin, the Minotaur. We made a huge suit and mechanical head that was worn by Kiwi actor Shane Rhangi. For full-body shots, Otmin was ours from the waist up, and R&H’s from the waist down.
“Otmin was a perfect blend of techniques, and the beginning of a very successful collaboration between special makeup and digital VFX for KNB. We love making creatures, and now we can create anything by working hand in hand with VFX. It’s a great marriage of the two arts.”
Beth Hathaway and Clare Mulroy from KNB EFX prepare Otmin for . scene in “The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe”
“Practical VFX has never completely disappeared, but it has been vastly overshadowed during the last two decades, as CG has become the primary tool for visual effects. Yet the audience knows the difference, and has grown steadily to be the strongest advocate for a balance onscreen.
“For the longest time, we couldn’t get producers and studios to consider that balance. Even studio VFX supervisors – for all their understanding of the value of real images – couldn’t turn the tide. In recent years, there has been some turnaround. The big studio ships aren’t exactly turning around and coming back to us, but more and more are dangling their dinghies.
“Our next challenge is re-educating people about what we do. The industry has a short memory. Today I sit in meetings where producers and directors ask if it’s possible to change the look of an actor’s face without rebuilding it as a digital asset. Alarming too, that the term “asset” has replaced the term “art”. We have to convince producers and supervisors that practical VFX can work – when they are designed with a plan of how they will be shot, and that plan is followed on stage.
“Is there a war between practical VFX and digital VFX? There is when you listen to the buzz of social media. Personally, I’ve always advocated balance. Our studioADI YouTube channel presents over a hundred clips of the work we’ve done for the past 30 years – a great deal of which works by overlapping with digital VFX. In fact, most of us working understand we’re all practitioners of the single art of visual effects – I myself have an Academy Award for Special Visual Effects. That term can’t be usurped solely for digital effects simply because of a misconception that we’re at odds.
“Yes, I’ve got a dog in this fight. Some of our best recent work at ADI has been altered, ruined or simply replaced in post by those who don’t have a big-picture vision. I don’t like seeing our art being downgraded to a service. I don’t want to close down my studio and send the artists away for good.
“The future won’t restore what has been compromised, but we do seem to be at the brink of a renaissance, with smaller films choosing an alternative to digital-only VFX, and big films understanding they can use the support of practical VFX. We’re not going anywhere. We just want to have our cake and eat it too.”
Director Tom Woodruff, Jr. tests makeup with actress Danielle Chuchran, for his crowdfunded feature film “Fire City”.
Steve Newburn Creature FX Supervisor, Pacific Rim, The Strain
“It can be tough for a traditional creature shop to survive today. Profit margins are tight. Seven-figure paychecks are a thing of the past. Those who openly embraced change early on, incorporating 3D modeling, milling and printing techniques into their workflow, are generally still going. But CG has had 20 good years to dig in, and we are on the verge of a generation of viewers who don’t know what “real” looks like any more.
“I remember a practical effect from a few years back. The director allowed three takes – which took roughly 15 minutes – before saying, “This is taking too long. We’ll do it in post.” No explanation about what wasn’t liked, even though it was exactly what was asked for. Everyone on the crew sat there for another hour-and-a-half while they shot take after take of the setup, followed by clean plates and HDR for the VFX team – around 18 additional takes. The attitude of the director fueled the perceived failure of the practical effect. Self-fulfilling prophecy.
“Yet there are many good directors (generally veteran filmmakers) still willing to work with practical effects. And most of the digital artists who come to reference our work say nothing but positive things about it. Many say practical effects are what they wanted to do for a living but, because of their apparent decline, they chose digital instead.
Strigoi makeup created by Steve Newburn and Sean Sansom for “The Strain”
“So what does the future hold? Personally, I think the industry will continue, but in constantly-evolving form. Creature shops are starting to look at smaller films, art projects and corporate work. This approach can keep smaller operations going, and is a good filler between other projects for the big shops.
“For both Pacific Rim and The Strain, we knew we couldn’t deliver the volume of work under the standard creature shop model. Our solution was to create a department under the production roof. This planted us firmly in the minds of the other departments – art, props, wardrobe, even construction – and resulted in additional work being sent our way. The producers saw that every dollar spent was going on camera and not into paying vendor overhead for months after wrap.
“With this model, we use the same crew we would as a vendor and, in most cases, those people are paid better … yet the ultimate price tag is cheaper. The producers have more control, and can see exactly where every dime is going. It eliminates our own need for clerical staff, as much of financials goes through the production’s accounting department.
“Further still, it encourages a more open-minded approach as to what tool is best for the job, and fosters a more fluid working relationship with the digital VFX team. As for the “practical vs digital” debate – it can finally take a back seat.”
“Personally, I’m banking on a growing use of practical materials and FX. As more artists – both practical and CG – become more comfortable with integrating these tangible items, thing should continue to open up. Of course, practical elements don’t help every effect, but I feel they can often help keep things grounded, honest and organic. Even if only when used as reference.
The alien character Cochise was created by MastersFX for “Falling Skies”
“There’s little debate that, when possible, filming physical elements on set can be good for the overall production. Actors perform better to something if they can see it, touch it, experience it. Directors work better with a real monster than a tennis ball. Scenes can be blocked out more successfully, and the overall belief in the experience is far more satisfying. The trick is figuring out which methodology is best suited for each case.
“As CG has evolved, so have practical FX materials. Now our “real” stuff looks and reacts like CG. Of course, CG has become more convincing as well. The art is in mixing them in a satisfying way. Ultimately, there’s only cool shots and good work. There aren’t sides to FX, until you choose to take them.”
“Has there been a better werewolf transformation scene since An American Werewolf in London? Has there ever been a better or more popular creature character in a film than Chewbacca? Name an alien that has captured the audience’s imagination – especially children – as much as E.T. Has there been a better creature built since the T-Rex in Jurassic Park?
“The Jurassic Park T-Rex and raptors have never been bettered as real, believable characters and I think that is partly down to the mix between practical and VFX. It is, after all, about fooling the audience’s eye and creating characters that are real. Once you have a King Kong that does multiple somersaults, and a herd of stampeding Brontosauri with people running between their legs, it doesn’t matter how real they look; it looks impressive from a technical point of view, but it fools no-one.
“I see one technological Hollywood masterpiece after another and they are all starting to look the same. I think that lack of technology in the past forced filmmakers to be inventive about how the story was told. We should make sure that magic is not lost forever. Fortunately, there are filmmakers out there who still embrace all aspects of our craft. None of it should be discounted. We should use whichever effect tells the story best.”
Mark Coulier, working under creature effects designer Nick Dudman, sculpted and applied this makeup for Voldemort in the “Harry Potter” series of films. The makeup was further refined with digital enhancement by MPC.
Despite the challenges of the last couple of decades, it’s clear to me that the practical creature effects industry is very much alive and kicking. Sure, it’s been forced to move with the times – and not always painlessly. But isn’t change inevitable, in all walks of life?
The practical shops that are surviving – in some cases thriving – are doing so because they’ve embraced that change. Some have done this by seeking ways to integrate with their digital peers, other by entering new markets, or by exploring new business models. Some have embraced all these things and more. Meanwhile, a new generation of filmmakers has emerged that is keen to explore the possibilities of today’s sophisticated brand of practical effects.
Throughout – and without exception – the creature-makers and makeup effects artists have continued to do what they’ve always done: used extraordinary skills to create amazing visions of imaginary beings. And if the above passionate – and sometimes impassioned – responses to my question prove anything, it’s this: however great the challenge, there is a viable alternative to extinction.
Now it’s your turn. Which side of the fence do you stand? Or are you ready to burn that fence down? Cast your vote below:
How many frames per second is enough? According to film director and visual effects pioneer Doug Trumbull, it’s 120fps. And he’s determined to prove it.
This week, on Thursday 11 September, the Toronto International Film Festival is staging the first public showing of UFOTOG, an experimental sci-fi adventure film written and directed by Trumbull. At the event – which will be moderated by Scott Feinberg – Trumbull will also deliver a keynote speech about the creation of the film.
UFOTOG is designed to showcase MAGI – a new combination of technologies that will, Trumbull believes, take motion pictures to the next level and compete with the various technologies threatening to draw audiences away from conventional theatrical presentations.
“Younger audiences are enjoying the benefits of low cost and convenience via downloading and streaming, causing tidal shifts in the entertainment industry, and particularly in theatrical exhibition. Theaters must offer an experience that is so powerful and overwhelming that people will see the reward of going out to a movie.” – Doug Trumbull
Trumbull is no stranger to stretching the boundaries of cinema. After supervising the groundbreaking visual effects of 2001: A Space Odyssey, he went on to develop Showscan, a 60fps film process which, had it taken off, would have brought high frame rates to theaters nearly thirty years before Peter Jackson managed it with The Hobbit.
UFOTOG was shot on a combined laboratory/stage/studio, with 120fps 4K 3D live action being staged inside virtual environments, and the results being relayed to a large screen adjacent to the shooting space.
MAGI isn’t just about high frame rates. According to the Trumbull Studios press release, UFOTOG “explores a new cinematic language that invites the audience to experience a powerful sense of immersion”. In collaboration with Christie Digital and Dolby Laboratories, Trumbull aims to transform the theatrical experience by improving screen size, image brightness, atmospheric sound and the effectiveness of 3D, as well as optimising the colour saturation and dynamic range of the projected image.
“We are exploring and discover a new landscape of audience excitement and do it inexpensively and quickly – we are pushing the envelope to condense movie production time, intending to make films at a fraction of current blockbuster costs, yet with a much more powerful result on the screen.” – Doug Trumbull
When I sat down to write about the 75th anniversary of MGM’s iconic musical The Wizard of Oz, the strangest thing happened. No sooner had I booted up my laptop than the skies darkened, and the wind began to howl.
Heart hammering, I ran outside. Sure enough, there on the horizon was an undulating tower of dust and debris. An enormous twister, headed my way.
Looking harder, I saw that the tornado was made not of bad weather, but ordinary muslin: a 35-foot sock of the stuff, suspended from a gantry and disappearing into a slot in the ground. The roar I could hear was the sound of compressed air pumping fuller’s earth up through the sock’s interior, and spilling it out into the air.
This twister was a fake.
But it could still kill me.
Terrified, I ran to the storm cellar, my trusty laptop clutched to my chest. But it was too late. The cyclone was upon me. It seized me, lofted me skywards and carried me away, not over the rainbow but 75 years back through time to 25 August 1939, and the city of New York. On that very day, right across the USA, The Wizard of Oz was enjoying the biggest simultaneous launch of any motion picture in history, with synchronised openings in 400 theatres, and the support of a massive $250,000 ad campaign.
I flew above Broadway. Everything below me was black and white, like a Movietone newsreel. I was surrounded by flapping wings. Not birds, nor even flying monkeys, but the popular magazines of the day. They spun past me, spilling their stories about the making of the most famous movie musical ever made …
Motion Picture Daily, 18 August 1939:
“… opening of Wizard of Oz at the Capitol, with Judy Garland and Mickey Rooney making a personal appearance, had Broadway gasping yesterday. Lines of waiting patrons, four abreast, extended to 51st St., west to Eighth Ave., down 50th St. and back to the box-office for a complete encirclement of the block on which the Capitol stands. The house played to absolute capacity all day, and it was estimated that 35,000 paid their way through the box-office. Sixty police were assigned to the theatre area …”
Hollywood, March 1939:
“… as the tin woodman in the Wizard of Oz, Jack Haley has to put on a silver make-up of such a chemical nature that it’s dangerous to wear. When putting it on, the make-up man protects the actor’s eyes by using shields. Once on, Jack is followed around by assistant make-up men who watch closely to see that Jack’s face is free from perspiration. The make-up takes about three hour to put on and two to remove and Jack has figured out that before the picture is finished he will have devoted more than five hundred and forty hours to make-up alone …”
Photoplay, September 1939:
“… 165 arts and crafts … 65 separate sets … a city of 22,000 glass objects … 40,000 poppies … 212,180 separate sound effects … Jack Dawn, head of the make-up department, devised 116 separate faces for [the Munchkins] …[costume designer Adrian turned out] 4,000 costumes for the more than 1,000 members of the cast [and] devised “skins” and eagle wings for the Flying Monkeys and two skins with a zipper for Bert Lahr, the Cowardly Lion …”
Motion Picture, March 1939:
“… [Jack Dawn] has invented a gelatinous, flexible substance that looks like flesh, and when put on the face allows complete freedom of expression. It’s light and porous, absorbs perspiration, and is comfortable to wear … He considers [The Wizard of Oz] his biggest and most difficult assignment to date. And it will show his wonders of make-up. A man will look like a lion or flying monkey and still preserve his identity …”
I clawed at the pages of the magazines, seeking more detail. What of the special effects? What of those glorious matte paintings? What more could I learn about the construction of the very twister that had carried me away?
Alas, it was too late. Already the cyclone was carrying me back home. I snatched one more glance at Motion Picture as it tumbled away, fascinated and amused by its closing lines concerning makeup artist Jack Dawn:
“Jack lives in the San Fernando Valley, and is the husband of the beauteous Marla Shelton, who patiently submits to his various tests and experiments, and with whom he is very much in love.”
I awoke at my desk, blinking and bemused. In front of me was my laptop. On its screen were the very words you read now. I had no memory of writing them.
I stretched, went to the window. The sky was clear, the air fresh as if from recent rain, though the ground was entirely dry.
Far in the distance, a rainbow sparkled.
I gazed into the rainbow’s many colours, remembering the long-ago world of 1939 to which I’d been unexpectedly whisked. The monochrome world. I thought about how, in the film, Dorothy’s Kansas homeland is black and white, while her destination of Oz is a many-hued dream. Yet my experience had been the opposite. After a moment, I understood why.
In 1939, movie magic was still a closely-guarded secret. Read the magazines of the day, and you’ll be lucky to find anything more than the kind of studio flim-flam I’ve just shown you. As for what you do read, well, it may be true … or it may just be humbug.
So I was glad to return to the world of today, a rainbow world of infinite colour, in which the secret world of cinematic illusions is there to be discovered, if only you know where to look. Some say knowing spoils the magic. Others say knowledge is power.
One of the key sequences featuring the award-winning prosthetics was an attack by a band of skeletal reanimated corpses known as “wights”. A seamless blend of practical and digital effects, the showstopping sequence features extensive prosthetics work by Gower and his team. Further examples of their work in the winning episode The Children include a three-eyed raven, as well as makeups for old age, injuries and burns. Barrie Gower had this to say about receiving the award:
“We feel highly honoured to be awarded the Emmy for best Prosthetic Makeup on Game of Thrones. We are delighted to be recognised for our crew’s hard work and passion. I see Game of Thrones as a bucket list for prosthetics. In any one season we can be asked to provide anything from old age makeups, creatures, likeness silicone heads and bodies to models for VFX lighting reference. We feel privileged to be a part of one of HBO’s flagship shows!”
Watch HBO’s behind the scenes video on the Game of Thrones season four finale – The Children:
Rodeo FX delivered 150 shots throughout season four. In addition to creating the city of Meereen, their team generated the massive CG army that attacks it. They also designed a series of grandiose CG environments, created a zombie-horse, modelled and animated a cavalry of thousands of horsemen, simulated atmospheric effects, and contributed to a number of wolf sequences.
“There was such a contagious desire to perform and deliver beyond-stunning visual effects,” said Rodeo’s CG Supervisor Matthew Rouleau. “The artists really put all their talent and their heart into the work. This is why we now have this amazing statuette decorating our office!”
Watch the Rodeo FX Game of Thrones Season Four VFX breakdown reel:
A further 72 shots were delivered by Mackevision. Their team spent around six months creating crowd replications, full CG ships and water simulations, set extensions, and an elaborate, full-CG digital environment of the city of Braavos, seen for the first time this season.
“We’re extremely happy about this award”, said Mackevision’s Visual Effects Supervisor Jörn Großhans. “We have worked on very beautiful, highly complex and dramatic shots in this season. Receiving the Emmy Award is a great honor for everyone involved in creating the show’s VFX.”
Watch the Mackevision Game of Thrones Season Four VFX breakdown reel:
Other key contributors to the show include Scanline VFX and concept designer Robert Simon. Lead Visual Effects Supervisor for HBO is Game of Thrones veteran Joe Bauer.
Stanley Kubrick has a lot to answer for. Single-handedly, he took all the fun out of space travel. All the fun, and all the colour
Ever since the release of Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey in 1968, spaceships in the movies have been painted white. Or grey. Or black. Ooh, is that a hint of silver? It’s the NASA look, defined in the sixties by the Apollo missions with their black-and-white Saturn V rockets, and inherited in the eighties by the equally monochromatic Space Shuttle.
Dennis Muren concedes that grey does at least stand out well against a bluescreen
Even the Star Wars saga – with its riotous assembly of galactic cruisers and space jalopies – is hamstrung by a limited colour palette. The evil Empire has shares in a paint shop that specialises in shades of grey.
Same with the rebels. Luke flies as Red Five during the Battle of Yavin, but does that mean his X-Wing is decked out in gaudy crimson? Nope. There might be a red stripe or two under all that grime, but Luke’s interstellar hot rod is as colourless as the TIE fighters he’s up against. Sure, they pushed the pigment envelope with the prequel trilogy, but who remembers that, right?
Meanwhile, the list goes on. Pick any iconic spaceship of the last forty years, then consider the paint job. The Nostromo? Light grey. The Sulaco? Dark grey. Then there’s the Rodger Young from Starship Troopers, or the Battlestar Galactica, or the Prometheus …
You get the picture.
“Which pod shall we take, Dave?” “I don’t know, Frank. How about the white one?”
Now everything has changed. Thanks to James Gunn’s Guardians of the Galaxy, space travel just went Technicolor.
In Gunn’s film, the spaceships shine like mechanical insects, wasp-striped and butterfly-winged. Peter Quill’s Milano is a confection of vivid blue and orange. The Nova Corps Starblasters are angry yellow and black. As for the many worlds explored by these many-hued craft – they’re simply dazzling. Space itself – that traditionally black interstellar void – is drenched with more colour than an exploding paint factory.
I love the exuberant hues of Guardians of the Galaxy. Not only do they overturn years of space-going sterility, but they also hark back to the science fiction paperbacks I devoured as a teenager. My favourite authors were Isaac Asimov and Larry Niven, whose books boasted cover illustrations by Chris Foss and Peter Jones respectively.
When my bookshelf collapsed, it did at least leave a colourful mess.
Foss specialises in giant, gaudy spaceships, each one perforated by about a billion tiny windows. His vehicles were huge and outlandish, bulging with unrestrained geometry and belching out entire fog banks of glowing exhaust gas. Jones’s artwork is just a riot, with one primary hue crashing against another as funky aliens fired unfathomable weapons into a collision of eccentric hardware.
Colour, colour, colour.
For years, that colour has been trapped on the covers of those battered old paperbacks. Now, at last, it’s beginning to find its way on to the silver screen. The first hint of this new trend came with James Cameron’s Avatar, whose alien world of Pandora was a rainbow brought to life. Yet, even in Cameron’s universe, the spaceships were still grey.
There was good reason for that. Thematically, the human technology in Avatar is cold and heartless, while the jungle inhabited by the native Na’vi – despite its many hazards – is warm and inviting. A perfect example of colour as subtext.
The Milano approaches Knowhere in Marvel’s “Guardians of the Galaxy”
Guardians of the Galaxy is different. In Gunn’s film, vivid colours are packed into every corner of every frame. Colour is what this galaxy is all about. It’s no coincidence that, tucked away in the credits at the end of the movie, you’ll find a host of talented concept and matte artists whose portfolios are also bulging with science fiction paperback covers. Artists like Fred Gambino and – you guessed it – Chris Foss.
Are we finally witnessing the end of Kubrick’s legacy? Has James Gunn opened the flood gates of a reservoir filled not with water, but all the coloured paints you could ever wish to see? One thing’s for sure: with Guardians of the Galaxy 2 already on the starting blocks, we’re set to be dazzled for some time to come.
Read the definitive behind-the-scenes story of the visual effects of Guardians of the Galaxy in the October issue of Cinefex, available to pre-order now!
If you follow our Facebook page, you’ll already know the lineup for the next issue of Cinefex. In case you missed the news, however, I’m here to tell you that our Fall edition – issue 139 – is a blockbuster package covering the visual effects of four of this year’s biggest movies: Edge of Tomorrow, Guardians of the Galaxy, Dawn of the Planet of the Apes and X-Men: Days of Future Past.
Given such a great selection of films, which one would you put on the cover? Make your guess below – it’s just for fun. All will be revealed soon …
“The kinds of landscape I try to find in my films exist only in our dreams” – Werner Herzog
Throughout human history, the mountain has stood tall as a home of spirituality, as a challenge to physical endurance, or simply as a vision of breathtaking beauty.
It was on Mount Olympus that the gods of Greece decided the fates of mortals; Moses received the Ten Commandments on the peak of Mount Sinai; in 1953, Sir Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay captured the world’s imagination by becoming the first to reach the summit of Mount Everest, whose Tibetan name Qomolangma carries meanings including “goddess” and “mother”.
Mountains stand tall in the history of cinema too: monumental examples of Werner Herzog’s idealised “dream landscape”, and guardians of a lethal realm in which spectacle and peril are balanced precariously over the abyss.
But consider the challenge of elevating an entire film crew – not to mention a cast of fragile actors – to the top of a remote and snowbound peak. Little wonder the art of visual effects has played such a large part in putting these high sierras on the screen.
“Black Narcissus” was shot at Pinewood Studios in England. Its spectacular Himalayan backdrops were provided by matte painter Walter Percy Day.
Take Black Narcissus, the 1947 film by Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger, in which a group of nuns establishes a convent high in the Himalayas. Even as they struggle to adjust to the precipitous surroundings, their fellowship is torn apart by simmering sexual tensions and haunted by echoes of the past.
Much of the uneasy mood of Black Narcissus is created by the edgy performances – not least a tour de force turn by Kathleen Byron as the unhinged Sister Ruth. However, the film also relies heavily on its Himalayan setting to evoke an atmosphere of entrapment in isolation. In short, it’s the mountains that make the movie sing.
For all its Asian airs, Black Narcissus was shot entirely in England, mostly on sets built at Pinewood Studios. The expansive Himalayan vistas were conjured by an extraordinary series of matte paintings designed by art director Alfred Junge and executed by Walter Percy Day.
In 1982, Herzog himself made symbolic use of a mountain, not to evoke feelings of alienation, but to represent man’s hubris. In Fitzcarraldo, the title character (Klaus Kinski) drives a team of Amazonian natives to transport his steamship up and over a steep wooded slope, only to see the vessel plunge headlong downslope and into the river beyond. Unlike Powell and Pressburger, however, Herzog eschewed the use of special effects altogether and staged everything for real (although debate continues about several shots during the rapids sequence in which the good ship Molly Aida looks suspiciously like a miniature).
Matte artist Rocco Gioffre touches up a mountain painting for Renny Harlin’s “Cliffhanger”
Michele Moen touches up a massive “Cliffhanger” matte painting while matte camera operator Alan Harding prepares for a take.
Fitzcarraldo’s jungle peak is tiny compared to the Rocky Mountains, presented in all their vertiginous glory by Renny Harlin in his 1993 film Cliffhanger. In the film, mountain climber Gabe Walker (Sylvester Stallone) is drawn into a race against time to recover $100 million stolen in a heist.
Once again, the spectacular scenery is the background against which the lead character faces ghosts from the past – in Walker’s case, the fateful day when he watched fellow rescue ranger Jessie Deighan (Janine Turner) plunge to her death. And, while Stallone performed a number of climbing scenes on location in the Rockies, some of the film’s most spectacular sequences come courtesy of Richard Edlund’s Boss Film Studios.
To achieve dizzying pull-back shots showing Stallone ascending seemingly impossible cliffs, Boss employed their elevator rig: a vertically configured motion control camera cantilevered precipitously out from mountainsides in the Italian Dolomites. Footage from the rig was rear projected into matte paintings, with foreground miniatures used to add extra depth and scale.
Schloss Adler – the Austrian castle created in miniature at Borehamwood Studios for “Where EAgles Dare”
As well as landscapes in which to search the soul, mountains are also obstacles to be surpassed, strongholds to be penetrated – perhaps even targets to be destroyed. In The Fellowship of the Ring, Frodo’s band of adventurers are thwarted by cruel Caradhras, a malevolent alp represented by New Zealand locations, studio sets and the ever-reliable digital matte painting. In Where Eagles Dare, the imposing castle Schloss Adler was doubled by the Austrian Burg Hohenwerfen, but also re-created in miniature on the MGM backlot at Borehamwood. The old-school was honoured in Christopher Nolan’s Inception, for which a mountain fortress was constructed in miniature by New Deal Studios … and then summarily blown up.
New Deal Studios created this one-sixth scale mountain fortress miniature for Christopher Nolan’s “Inception”
Action aside, the movie mountain has ever been a place of the soul – a thesis supported by The Secret Life of Walter Mitty (2013), in which the title character (Ben Stiller) literally climbs a mountain to find not only the man he’s been searching for – Sean O’Connell (Sean Penn) – but enlightenment.
Live action plates for Mitty’s vistas were shot in Iceland, with LOOK Effects and Hatch FX teaming up to create digital extensions, based on Himalayan photography provided by Alex Nice and laid out by matte artist Deak Ferrand.
“The Secret Life of Walter Mitty” – original plate photography
“The Secret Life of Walter Mitty” – final composite
As well as being a classic “dream landscape”, the mountain is also the perfect metaphor for the filmmaking process … and within that the task of the visual effects artist. In every worthwhile creative endeavour, there is a mountain to climb. At its peak there may lie enlightenment, or exhaustion, or both.
But the peak is only the destination. In fiction, as in life, the real value of the mountain experience lies in the journey. The truth behind all imaginary landscapes – mountains included – is this: those sights which make us gasp in awe are won only by tremendous toil, undertaken one slow step at a time. The toil of the climber, yes. But also the toil of the artist who opens our eyes to scenes we might otherwise never experience.
“In a sense everything that is exists to climb. All evolution is a climbing towards a higher form. Climbing for life as it reaches towards the consciousness, towards the spirit. So we climb, and in climbing there is more than a metaphor; there is a means of discovery.” – Rob Parker, Explorer and Mountaineer
“Every man should pull a boat over a mountain once in his life.” – Werner Herzog