Now Showing – Cinefex 166

Cinefex 166 covers "The Lion King," "Spider-Man: Far From Home," "Game of Thrones" and "MIB: International."

I’ve never been a ‘fan.’ Even as a teenager, I was alone among my friends in never hanging a poster of Bobby Sherman (yes, when I was 13, that was the poster) on my bedroom walls. No John, no Paul, no George, no Ringo.

If I’ve been a fan of anyone in the years since, it has been Jon Favreau – and it started long before he began making the kinds of movies we cover in Cinefex. I watched nearly every episode of his conversational television show, Dinner for Five. I thought Elf was hilarious, and Couples Retreat remains one of my favorite guilty pleasures. Favreau’s Iron Man was when I took notice of him professionally, covering that film – to my mind, the most entertaining origin-story superhero movie ever – in Cinefex 114.

So, it was with a great deal of personal pleasure that I wrote about Favreau’s remake of The Lion King. Not only is he a great talker – he jokes that his idea of directing is talking – I quickly saw that what they were doing to create that film, both on the virtual production stage and at MPC, was truly remarkable. The story’s all here in Cinefex 166.

I’m also a fan of Game of Thrones; but since I was up to my eyeballs in lion fur grooms, I entrusted our coverage of the final season to Graham Edwards’ capable hands. In his story, Graham balances the physical on-the-ground effort with the equally extraordinary postproduction work. Graham also gives us the behind-the-scenes scoop on Spider-Man: Far From Home, which includes commentary by director Jon Watts.

Cinefex covered the first Men in Black 22 years ago, when writer Joe Fordham was but a callow youth. The much matured Mr. Fordham digs deep into the making of MIB: International in a comprehensive story that covers everything from alien design to makeup to on-set special effects to witty MIB-style visual effects.

We were there for Men in Black in Cinefex 70; we’re still here for Men in Black in Cinefex 166. The Circle of Life, indeed.

Cinefex 166 is on newsstands now, and available to order at our online store. If you’re a subscriber, your copy is already roaring its way towards your mailbox. And don’t forget our iPad edition, featuring tons more photographs and exclusive video content.

Now Showing – Cinefex 165

Cinefex 165

When the time comes to write a ‘From the Editor’s Desk’ piece for the current issue, I usually think back over the previous two months – during which time we wrote the editorial content for that issue – and whatever bubbles up to the surface of my brain, that’s what I write about.

What bubbled up this time was profound gratitude for my writing team, Joe Fordham and Graham Edwards. Every two months, these dynamos generate about 60 pages of editorial content. To put this in perspective: remember in college when you had that ‘big’ ten-page, end-of-semester paper due? Remember the dread with which you approached that project? Joe and Graham write ten pages every few days. A three-page paper? Shoot – they  do that before their first cup of tea in the morning! And what they produce isn’t exactly easy-breezy content. It is often highly technical, dense and complicated – but for the reader, Joe and Graham have to make it, in the words of Albert Einstein, ‘As simple as possible, but not simpler.’

They came through again in our current issue, Cinefex 165, with articles covering Godzilla: King of the Monsters, X-Men: Dark Phoenix, Pokémon Detective Pikachu and Amazon Studios’ Good Omens series. I wasn’t sitting around eating bon-bons, either. I wrapped up ten years of covering Marvel Studios productions with my long article on Avengers: Endgame.

Each article carefully balances technical detail with the more human story of why creatives made the decisions they made, what they were going for, their victories and frustrations. The movies are big, the stories are big, the effort – every two months – is big.

Thank you, guys.

Cinefex 165 is on newsstands now, and available to order at our online store. If you’re a subscriber, your copy is already stomping its way towards your mailbox. And don’t forget our iPad edition, featuring tons more photographs and exclusive video content.

Now Showing – Cinefex 164

Cinefex 164

Spring is here, and it reminds me that, for Cinefex, every year is a bifurcated one. Roughly, the six-month period of April through September brings with it the release of many large-scale, effects-heavy movies – the kind of movies that are our raison d’être. In contrast, the six months between October and March offer up a very different – shall we say, ‘more serious’? – type of film, those in which Nicole Kidman’s fake nose piece in The Hours is the most effects-y thing on the menu. Those are the ‘What the heck are we going to cover?’ months for us – not always, of course (thank you, movie gods, for the Lord of the Rings trilogy, Interstellar and First Man) – but often.

The lineup for Cinefex 164 features the effects spectaculars we’ve come to associate with flowering blossoms, warm breezes, and purchases of Costco-sized bottles of Zyrtec. Captain Marvel graces our cover and is the fascinating subject of Joe Fordham’s comprehensive story, liberally laced with commentary from directors Anna Boden and Ryan Fleck, visual effects supervisor Christopher Townsend, and effects principals at no fewer than 13 top-drawer visual effects companies.

Graham Edwards’ interview slate was similarly extensive, both for his exploration of Hellboy, and for his second article on the history of animals – real, stop-motion-animated, animatronic and digital – in the movies, from Rin Tin Tin to Caesar.

And speaking of cinematic beasts, we round out the issue with my coverage of Tim Burton’s Dumbo. Full disclosure: I’d never seen the 1941 original, but spent a lovely afternoon with my four-year-old granddaughter to watch it in preparation for my story. (Her review: It was sad when Dumbo’s mommy went away.)

Happy Spring!

Watch a video preview of Cinefex 164:

Cinefex 164 is on newsstands now, and available to order at our online store. If you’re a subscriber, your copy is already speeding towards your mailbox. And don’t forget our iPad edition, featuring tons more photographs and exclusive video content.

“Playtime” – Q&A with Alec Gillis

"Playtime" by Alec Gillis and StudioADI

Co-founder of Amalgamated Dynamics Incorporated, Alec Gillis has been in the film industry for 38 years, creating – with partner Tom Woodruff Jr. – makeup and practical characters and creatures for films such as Tremors, Death Becomes Her, Alien 3, Starship Troopers, Jumanji and It.

Gillis has now written, directed, produced and performed roles in Playtime, a 13-minute short – presented on ADI’s YouTube channel – that explores the question: what becomes of an animatronic star in the digital age?

The protagonist of Playtime is Billy, a ‘Chucky’-like 80’s-era animatronic doll whose hopes of returning to the big screen are raised with Variety’s announcement of a current-day reboot of the ‘Playtime’ horror film franchise. Billy is ready for his closeup – until he learns that his role will be played by a computer-animated character.

I spoke with Gillis about the film’s evolution and message, and where he – and animatronics – fit within today’s movie-making machine.

Writer/director Alec Gillis coaches Billy, the animatronic star of his satirical short film "Playtime," available to view on the studioADI YouTube channel.

Writer/director Alec Gillis coaches Billy, the animatronic star of his satirical short film “Playtime,” available to view on the studioADI YouTube channel.

CINEFEX: How did Playtime come about?

GILLIS: A number of things converged to make Playtime happen. After all these years in the business, I’m constantly trying to stay relevant, and it is a challenge, especially as technology changes. So I’m always thinking about that. And then, I started immersing myself in silent films, and looking back at those people who didn’t make the transition to talkies – a subject that is brilliantly portrayed in Sunset Boulevard. There’s another movie, The Comic, about a silent film star who ages and ends up sitting on a park bench.

CINEFEX: As does Billy.

GILLIS: Exactly. The character in The Comic is named ‘Billy Bright,’ and that name stuck with me. I love all those stories of Hollywood, partly because they point out how superficial we all are in the industry, and how we attach so much importance to what we do – which is ultimately just entertaining.

CINEFEX: So your experiences and observations from inside the film industry were the inspiration for this movie.

GILLIS: Yeah – I joke that it’s an autobiography, but in a way, it really is. And then, of course, if it makes a statement about practical effects, which is my first love, and if I can create a character that emotes and even gets some emotion out of the audience, then I’m enforcing the idea that animatronics are still viable as a technique. Those are all the dry reasons I made this movie – but ultimately, I love writing and performing comedy, and I wanted to have some fun with this. I wanted to do something where I would be unfettered by commercial concerns or movie executives.

Watch Playtime on the studioADI YouTube channel:

CINEFEX: You not only wrote, directed and produced Playtime, you are the voice of Billy, and you play the role of movie producer ‘Robert Gorman.’

GILLIS: I really wanted to play that part because I sometimes find myself in a producer role, adopting a producer-like sensibility; and then, Billy is arguing the other side. The dialogue they have during that exchange, the producer explaining why Billy can’t be in the new movie – what Gorman says in that exchange are all paraphrasings of real things that have been said to me by executives. Things like, ‘Reality isn’t inspiring.’ So I loved this character – this producer who has a thin veneer of courtesy, but really, he’s just tolerating you, and he feels as if he is doing you a favor by entertaining your silly little notions of using practical effects.

CINEFEX: ‘Robert Gorman’ – can’t help but think of ‘Roger Corman’ in that name.

GILLIS: It’s a deliberate homage to my old boss, Roger Corman – who, by the way, never had that attitude. But I had to pay homage to him, one way or the other.

CINEFEX: You even wrote and sang the end credits song – Hahahaha Hollywood.

GILLIS: That was fun. Actually, Ben Brown, who shot the movie, wrote the music, and I wrote the lyrics. I’m always writing dumb rap poetry, usually for my family. But then I thought: ‘Why should I contain my genius to the family? I need to share my gift with the world!’

CINEFEX: And the world thanks you. Tell me about how Billy’s design evolved.

GILLIS: Obviously, he’s a riff on Chucky from Child’s Play, but beyond that I wanted a design that would play to the strengths of animatronics. Rather than come up with a design I fell in love with, and then do anything to build to that design, I decided to come at it from the other direction. What do I need? I need good facial expressions, emoting and performance – and that required a head that was proportionately larger than any real doll’s head. Dave Penikas, our animatronics designer and engineer here, said, ‘As long as you don’t give me a head that’s too small, I’ll be able to give you a beautiful performance.’ So that was the start of the design – this oversized head that would enable us to fit in all the animatronics we needed for a good performance. Then I brought in Tim Martin, who is an excellent sculptor, and he designed Billy’s face based on his own kid.

CINEFEX: When we first see Billy, in the 1980s ‘Playtime’ movie, he’s a pristine looking doll. But when we cut to current-day Billy, he looks very much the worse for wear.

GILLIS: Yes – so we shot all of that beginning, with the kid and the babysitter in the mock Playtime movie, first. And then I went in and jacked up Billy’s look. I glued the eyelids down and made the skin look like it was peeling. I actually used the forehead mold of Pennywise the clown from It on Billy’s forehead, so it would have that cracking, corroded look. And then I painted him with a kind of Norma Desmond-ish makeup, making him look as ghastly as I could.

CINEFEX: There is so much expression in Billy’s face – that must have been a fairly sophisticated piece of animatronic machinery.

GILLIS: It was, but it was mounted on top of a cable-articulated body, which was not a particularly sophisticated bit of machinery. I knew we needed his face to perform and emote, but that his body could be a little funky. It was okay if the body looked like a cheap animatronic. So we built the body in a very simple way, but the face was very complex and realistic.

Alec Gillis and puppeteer Mike West put Billy's cable control system through its paces.

Alec Gillis and puppeteer Mike West put Billy’s cable control system through its paces.

CINEFEX: In the movie, there are three people puppeteering him – was that the actual number?

GILLIS: Yeah, it was – Dave Penikas, Mike West and Zac Teller, and they all worked on the build, as well. Dave was in charge of the head, with assistance from Mike West; and then Mike was in charge of the motion control system, where I pre-recorded all of Billy’s facial performance. Normally, we do facial functions live so the performance can be directed by the director. But in this case, since I was the director, I just blocked out the scene in my mind and did some rough storyboards, and then I preprogrammed all the facial expressions. We had complete control over the eyes, brows, cheeks, and there was even a little animation in his hair, so the wig could move back and forth. And then, Mike West preprogrammed all the lip-synch animation.

CINEFEX: Even though the point of the film was to use practical effects, there must have been some visual effects necessary.

GILLIS: We had a couple of visual effects shots. One was when it is revealed that Billy is watching his old movie – he walks up to the television set, and his reflection is in the TV, and the image degrades to look like VHS static. Andrew Ceperley did those shots. There were also visual effects shots for the little greenscreen demo you see on a kid’s iPad, and in a shot of girls outside a convention hall, screaming ‘Billy, we love you!’ Those shots were done by Stephen Norrington, my old buddy who directed Blade and The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen. He thought the project was a hoot, and so he wanted to help out.

CINEFEX: Any visual effects required for Billy operator paint-outs?

GILLIS: No, we always just framed them out – except for those moments where I wanted to show them for comedic effect.

Puppeteers Mike West and Zachary Teller with Billy on the ADI stage.

Puppeteers Mike West and Zachary Teller with Billy on the ADI stage.

CINEFEX: At the end of the movie, Billy discovers that there is still a place for him in the film industry – that there are fans of what he represents.

GILLIS: That’s autobiographical as well. Because there are a lot of fans of practical creature effects, and there is no reason to have a knee-jerk negative response to all things digital – because digital frees you. I wish fans of practical effects would embrace the overlap between the digital and the practical. There’s nothing wrong with CGI; it’s just that techniques should always be used to their strengths, no matter what the technique is. I wanted to end the movie with a message about the practical and the digital coming together.

CINEFEX: Do you have plans to enter Playtime into any film festivals?

GILLIS: I haven’t done that. I did this primarily for Studio ADI’s channel on YouTube. It was kind of a gift to fans of practical effects.

CINEFEX: Thank you, Alec.


“True Detective” Prosthetic Makeup Effects

Mahershala Ali stars as Wayne Hays in Nic Pizzolatto's "True Detective," aged into his 70s in Season Three by Michael Marino of Prosthetic Renaissance.

Mahershala Ali stars as Wayne Hays in Nic Pizzolatto’s “True Detective,” aged into his 70s in Season Three by Michael Marino of Prosthetic Renaissance.

In Season Three of creator Nic Pizzolatto’s True Detective, the two main characters – Wayne Hays (Mahershala Ali) and Roland West (Stephen Dorff) – inhabit three different time periods: the 1980s, 1990s and present day. The storyline called for both characters to be aged into their 70s, a task awarded to prosthetic makeup designer Michael Marino of Prosthetic Renaissance in Englewood, New Jersey.

The more dramatic of the two age makeups is that created for Wayne ‘Purple’ Hays, a long retired detective exhibiting signs of dementia as he grapples with a child abduction and murder case that has haunted him throughout his career.

As it happened, Mahershala Ali’s own grandfather had been a police officer in Los Angeles, and though he was a bit older than the character in the series, he served as fitting inspiration for what Hays might look like as an old man. “I already had a relationship with Mahershala from a previous project,” recalled Mike Marino, “so we had ongoing conversations about it via texts. Then, when I met with him to do the lifecast, we talked more about how his grandfather had aged, and I kept that in mind as I designed the makeup. Mahershala gave me photographs of his grandfather and I used those as reference.”

Marino also considered the character’s psychological traits and life experiences in designing the makeup. “He’s a detective,” Marino noted, “a very worried guy, a drinker, a smoker. I had to take all of those things into account. If someone says, ‘create a prosthetic makeup for someone in their 70s,’ there are a hundred different ways to go just because people age so differently. There are 70-year-olds who look like they’re 50!”

The age makeup was sculpted over a lifecast of Mahershala Ali.

The age makeup was sculpted over a lifecast of Mahershala Ali.

More than anything else, the actor’s lifecast dictated the direction of the final old-age makeup. “I couldn’t just randomly make up wrinkles,” Marino explained. “I had to study Mahershala’s face very carefully and go from there. I took a series of photographs of him in all different facial positions – squinting, raising his brows, smiling, making weird faces – so I could identify where his own wrinkle pattern would be. Once I determined where those wrinkle patterns were, I knew where I could accentuate them.”

Marino did the lifecast of the actor in silicone. “The advantage to silicone is that you can do a lifecast in much thinner layers,” said Marino. “The cast is much less distorted by the weight of the casting material; and so, you get a more accurate cast than what you got in the 80’s or 90’s with alginate.”

Marino sculpted the old-age look over the lifecast, and from there produced nine prosthetic pieces made of a custom formulation of encapsulated silicone, working with prosthetic makeup artist Mike Fontaine. The prosthetics included a neck-and-half-cheek piece, eyebags, outer-corner eye pieces, inner-corner eye pieces, a center brow piece, an upper lip, lower chin, and a forehead piece. A wig finalized the look.

“My prosthetics are a little strange and unorthodox,” commented Marino. “I’ll sometimes do half-cheeks, or even a quarter of a cheek, or an eyebag that is only half an eyebag. I try to cover the face only where it is absolutely necessary. I avoid excess prosthetics so I can retain as much of the natural face as possible. And I can do that because I’m not afraid of landing an edge in the middle of nowhere. I know I can paint it and glue it down so it’s invisible; and so, I’m not worried about hiding anything. I’ve put edges where you would normally never want an edge and made it work. That approach allows me to use partial prosthetics, rather than having to cover an entire area; and that allows me to better retain the actor’s likeness and essence.”

Michael Marino and Göran Lundström apply the age makeup to Mahershala Ali, a process that took around three hours.

Michael Marino and Göran Lundström apply the age makeup to Mahershala Ali, a process that took around three hours.

Marino’s ability to do partial prosthetics is due, in part, to the custom silicone material, which has properties that mimic real flesh. “It responds with a really great memory,” Marino said. “If you touch real soft skin, even aged skin, it bounces back very quickly – it doesn’t stay pushed in and mushy. A lot of silicones, when you press them, they stay pressed in a little too long. My formula of silicone reacts more like real skin, and that’s part of the reason for the makeup’s success. But it is also about the design. The material doesn’t give me the license to add prosthetics wherever I want. The design still has to be right for the character. In this case, there was so much movement and acting that had to come through in this character, I didn’t want to overdo it.”

Prosthetic Renaissance also created age makeup for Stephen Dorff’s character, Roland West.

Prosthetic Renaissance also created age makeup for Stephen Dorff’s character, Roland West.

Once Marino and crew members Kevin Kirkpatrick and, later, Göran Lundström got into the swing of the project, application time was three hours. The application of the old-age makeup for Stephen Dorff’s character, Roland West, took a bit longer due to Roland’s longer hair and scruffy beard. “We first had to flatten his hair down with a resin paste and blank out the color of it,” Marino recalled, “and then put a bald cap on him and a prosthetic piece over that. A thin, gray partial wig was then combed into his own hair. Another additional step on Stephen was his stubble, which was important to the essence of this character. We flocked his beard onto his face using a special gun that works with static electricity. We put glue on his face, and then we shot these little prepared chopped hairs onto it. When we combed it out, it looked like hair was actually growing from the face, sticking out like a beard would, rather than laying on top of the face. The hair and beard added about a half hour to Stephen Dorff’s makeup application time.”

To avoid the grueling prospect of the actors enduring the makeup chair for three hours or more each day, production scheduled old-age scenes for a maximum or three to four days per week; for the remainder of the week, the actors were either off or shooting their 1980s and 1990s scenes. “It would have been too much to have the actors in prosthetics five or six days a week,” Marino stated. “The producers on the show were the best ever because they really navigated the schedule to accommodate the makeup needs.”

“The Orville” – Smarter, not Harder

"The Orville" space battle - visual effects by Fuse FX

The recently aired Season 2, Episode 9 of the Fox Network’s The Orville featured an epic space battle that rivaled – and arguably surpassed – those seen previously in the Star Trek or Battlestar Galactica television series. Working under the guidance of production visual effects supervisor Luke McDonald and visual effects producer Brooke Noska, FuseFX visual effects supervisor Tommy Tran and his team delivered all but about a minute of the space battle within a remarkably short eight-week time frame, without compromising anything in terms of dynamism and realism.

Created by and starring Seth MacFarlane, The Orville is, at one level, a space comedy loosely based on Star Trek; but MacFarlane and everyone associated with the show, including the visual effects teams, fully understand that satire works best when the core elements of the subject being satirized are duplicated with precision and specificity. “Comedy or not,” said Tommy Tran, “this space battle had to look and feel like a dramatic space battle, without crossing the boundary from sci-fi reality to absurdity. The sequence does pay homage to the ‘red shirt guy’ from Star Trek, and there is also a Top Gun moment in there; but other than that, the space battle was presented as cinematically as possible.”

Watch the space battle in this clip from The Orville:

In addition to the Orville starship, the sequence features Kaylon, and Krill spaceships and fighters. Though the angular, green Krill ships had been seen previously on the show – their designs already well established – the Kaylon fleet was only introduced in Part 1 of Episode 9. Pixomondo, another vendor on The Orville, built CG models from Kaylon ship designs by in-house digital effects supervisor Brandon Fayette. “Brandon is a very talented CG artist,” said Tran, “and he worked with Seth starting on Season 1 to design the look of every ship in the Union fleet, the Krill fleet, and the Kaylon fleet. However, FuseFX did design the space station from a basic concept, as well as the little robot ships that repair the larger ships.”

Integrating the Maya assets provided by Pixomondo required the use of optimization tools developed by FuseFX as a means of producing shots quickly and efficiently – crucial, given the company’s eight-week schedule. “Our pipeline TD, Changsoo Eun, created a tool that allowed us to auto-populate the shots before they went to the lighters,” Tran said. “So all the tracking data was there, and all the CG assets were there. Without that, we would have had to manually bring in hundreds of ships and place them in 3D space, which would have been daunting.”

The optimization tools enabled shots to be auto-populated not only with ships but also with explosions and space debris. “We looked at several recent films to get a sense of the look and feel of space battle scenes – the look of fireballs and explosions and so on,” recalled Tran. “That’s where we started. From there, I sat the effects artists down for about two weeks to do nothing but make small, medium and large explosions, fireballs and debris. Then Changsoo took all those assets we’d pre-built for the explosions and put them into a library. He wrote some code, so when the lighters needed an explosion, they could just go to the drop-down menu and find a fully rendered Houdini explosion we could plug in anywhere in 3D space.

“We did the same thing for space debris – bits and pieces of broken ships. We sat our modelers down for a couple of days, and said, ‘Run several varying destruction simulations.’ Each asset then was categorized in our library; and so, when the lighter needed to fill the background with space debris, he just went to the drop-down menu through our pipeline. Doing that, we could populate shots with varying amounts of space debris. That was a very robust feature. We’ve been able to auto-populate scenes before but not at this level. It was like we’d auto-populated trees in a park before; but for this, we had to auto-populate Yosemite National Forest!”

In the end, the space battle was such a monumental task, Tran brought in the help of FuseFX visual effects supervisor Kevin Lingenfelser. “He ran part of the episode with me,” Tran said. “We just split it – I’ll do this, you do that. It was a big help; the task was bigger than any one supervisor could manage That’s the thing I’m most proud of – that we were able to deliver that incredible sequence in eight weeks, to the quality that we did. We did it through optimization and teamwork and communication. We did it through working smarter, not harder.”

That’s a Wrap – “Game of Thrones” Q&A

For the past seven years, visual effects supervisor Joe Bauer has been living a transcontinental life, spending half the year or more in Northern Ireland to oversee the filming of visual effects sequences for HBO’s Game of Thrones, and then returning home to Los Angeles for the remainder of the year, working long hours in postproduction to shepherd the completion of final shots from vendors around the globe.

He is currently just a handful of weeks away from delivering the last of those shots for Game of Thrones’ final season – and so, the time seemed right to talk with Bauer about his seven-year journey through Westeros and environs …

Joe Bauer

You came onto Game of Thrones for the series’ third season, in 2013. From the beginning, the production has been based in Northern Ireland. When did you first arrive there?

I think it was May of 2012 – something like that. That first year, I was there for about six months. I remember that we were back in time for Thanksgiving. And then the next year we were back before Christmas; and the year after that, we stayed until after Christmas. For Season Eight, we stayed in Northern Ireland for a full year, from August 2017 to August 2018.

What accounted for those longer and longer production times?

It wasn’t the number of episodes – those actually diminished. In the beginning there were ten episodes per season, and in later seasons, there were six or seven. But the volume of work for all departments increased, and the length of the episodes increased, as well. Also, the visual effects work compounded dramatically – from 800 shots in Season Three to well over 3,000 shots in Season Eight.

Your first year, what kind of ‘catch up’ did you have to do to take over the visual effects supervision for a show that already had been in production for two seasons?

I hadn’t read the books beforehand, and in fact, I wasn’t even aware of the show. So, the hardest thing was just trying to get some grasp of the story and the characters. Reading the script and making sense of it all was like reading another language. I just focused on the things that seemed most likely to be visual effects, things I knew they wouldn’t be able to shoot.

Do you recall your initial discussions with the show’s creators, David Benioff and D.B Weiss?

I remember one of the things they said right off was that they wanted the show to be cinematic – which was a nice thing to hear. And then we tested that immediately by asking them for some things that were unusual for production, things involving stunts and special effects. There is a horrible knee-jerk tendency out there to go the CG route. But it is so much better if you’ve got something there, even if it is just photography to match to – and I’ve been beating that drum for a long time. The idea was to go into postproduction with elements that would be much harder to create as assets or effects sims, especially in a constricted timeframe. If we shot something, I knew I could plug that in and it would look good. If you can put 70% of the shot together on the Avid, then you’re home free.

Were there any peculiarities to working in Northern Ireland?

The working style was a bit different. They work without stopping for lunch, for example, which definitely has its advantages. And so, you do a ‘walking lunch.’ You also do a 10-hour day, generally, unless everyone agrees to go longer. But that’s rare, especially when you’re shooting outdoors in inclement weather. You’d kill people if you kept them out there longer than 10 hours. Also, the crew was made up of a lot of Irish and British people, and it is the cultural tradition to head for the pub after your work is done. If we worked them too long, and they didn’t get to check that emotional box, we’d have a pretty unhappy crew.

Was it more difficult to get special equipment there?

A bit. Anything that was unusual had to come from London – or sometimes even from L.A. For example, in Season Four, we had a 30X400-foot greenscreen for the wall battle. They built this massive scaffold in a farmer’s field, not too far from the coast. A couple of nights, there was such a storm that it ripped all of the greenscreen that had been fabricated in the U.S. and shipped over. It was ripped into rags. They got more of it made and shipped, and they got some at Shepperton, but that was a big deal. Motion control equipment was brought in from the U.K. and the U.S. – so there were shipping considerations with that, as well.

You must have faced a lot of shooting challenges in your six years on the show – days in which things did not go as planned. Care to share any of those memories?

A lot of them revolve around our outdoor greenscreen needs, which increased with every season. Early on, we’d just rely on stand-by people to put up our greenscreens. We’d throw them up the best we could – but not in a way that anybody with any knowledge would have done it! For example, we did that for a scene with Hodor and Bran at the cave of the three-eyed raven, and then the winds came up and the greenscreen started falling over. We realized at that point that we couldn’t function like that any more. It was just too dangerous. So we hired Paul Hatchman as our visual effects key grip, and once we got him in, everything changed. But our worst day was before we hired Paul, and everything was blowing and falling. Most of the bad experiences I recall – those I can actually recount – were those Man vs. Elements situations, because the elements always win.

How did the workflow evolve from Season Three to Season Eight? What improvements or changes were implemented along the way to improve efficiency and productivity?

The biggest change, I think, was just the number of visual effects facilities we had to bring on. In Season Two they had one facility – I think everything was done by Pixomondo. By Season Six, we had 14 facilities. Another comparison: for Season Three we had three previs people; for Season Eight we had 22 – including several geniuses. We also brought on additional visual effects supervisor starting with Season Four – Stefen Fangmeier, Ted Rae and Eric Carney of The Third Floor.

Watch the trailer for Game of Thrones Season Eight:

You mentioned that Season Eight has 3,000-plus visual effects shots. What were the mechanics of managing that volume of work in postproduction?

After we had determined what the shot load was going to be, we told the producers that we had just barely delivered our 2,400 shots for Season Seven – and this was going to be a lot more than that! We simply couldn’t do it in the time we had. We either had to lose shots or we had to bring on another supervisor; and they opted to bring on another supe, which was Stefen Fangmeier. Stefen did the premier and I did the finale, plus the majority of the remaining shots – because I’m a glutton for punishment, I guess!

Many of the same people – department heads and crew members – have worked together on this show season after season. Tell me how that has impacted the production. I imagine there is a significant benefit to that.

Oh, yeah. Once you have a history, everyone is confident enough to own what they’re doing and not wait to be told. Confidence is the key – and once everybody has that, you can do great things. For example, for this season, The Third Floor came up with the idea of putting programmed LEDs on the walls of the stage to ensure correct moving eyelines. Previously, we’d just had numbers on the wall, and we’d be yelling out: ‘Number 1! Number 5! Number 4!’ The programmed LEDs were a big improvement – and The Third Floor just did it, because they had the confidence to do it.

Visual effects producer Steve Kullback preceded you by one season – but you’ve been working as a team since Season Three. What is that working relationship like?

Anything I want to do, Steve makes it happen. And I’m not overstating that.

That’s a great quality in a visual effects producer.

It is! Whenever I had an idea, I’d first have to sell it to Steve – and he would be the devil’s advocate, to some degree, until I held my breath and threatened to walk in front of a bus if I didn’t get what I wanted. Once I convinced him, he would march it upstairs to Bernadette Caulfield, the executive producer, and I’d hear her jaw hit the floor. But she trusted Steve, and Steve trusted me – so it worked out. He was the Great Facilitator. He put a kind of protective bubble over me and ran interference for me, so I could do what I had to do.

After working on this show and these people for six years, you must have had mixed feelings about its being over. Tell me about your final days working on Game of Thrones as the production side of it came to an end last August.

I remember that the number of effects shots was still growing, and that meant there were more and more elements to shoot. As the schedule worked out, the last elements were being shot as I was in Heathrow Airport, preparing to fly back to L.A. – and so, right there in the airport, I was getting QuickTime movies sent to me on my phone to sign off on. There wasn’t a wasted second. And everybody was on board. We had a couple of the best camera operators in the U.K. working for us, and they stayed to shoot elements! Everybody was invested in this effort, as a whole. Everybody wanted to stay and see it out.

You have another few weeks of postproduction ahead of you, and then your tenure on Game of Thrones will be over. What’s next? Do you plan to take some time off?

I’m not that kind of person – not a lay-by-the-pool kind of guy. Never have been. I’ve got some travel plans for this June, but hopefully by late summer I’ll be plugged into the next thing.

Thanks, Joe.

Cinefex 157 covers "Game of Thrones" Season Seven

The eighth and final season of Game of Thrones airs on HBO, commencing April 14, 2019.

Now Showing – Cinefex 163

Cinefex 163 featuring "Alita: Battle Angel"

I spent my formative childhood years in a rural northern California town that had a population of 2,000 cowboy-hat-wearing people, one gas station, and a single main street still lined with hitching posts to which denizens had once tied their horses. There wasn’t a multiplex movie theater in sight.

And so, when Walt Disney Pictures released Mary Poppins in 1964, I only saw it because my mother packed me up along with my siblings and drove 30 miles to the one single-screen movie theater in the area. It was an event so thrilling, so outside my day-to-day life, I have never forgotten it.

That memory led me to approach my coverage of Mary Poppins Returns with particular joy. I also had some trepidation, though, wondering what in the world these new-fangled filmmakers were going to do with my beloved nanny. I need not have worried. Director Rob Marshall brought a sure and reverent hand to the project, and his commentary in my article is revelatory.

If there is a character diametrically opposed to Mary Poppins, it would be the manga warrior, Alita. The big-eyed girl’s big-screen debut, Alita: Battle Angel, has been in the works for more than a decade, and Joe Fordham brings you all the details of that journey. Joe also covers Mortal Engines, which marks the directorial debut of longtime Peter Jackson collaborator and concept designer Christian Rivers.

Graham Edwards delivers the behind-the-scenes story of Bumblebee and its 1980s-style Transformer effects by Industrial Light & Magic and Cantina Creative, which brought heart and character to the ‘rock-em, sock-em robots’ franchise.

Cinefex 163 – Practically Perfect in Every Way.

Cinefex 163 is on newsstands now, and available to order at our online store. If you’re a subscriber, your copy is already powering towards your mailbox. And don’t forget our iPad edition, out soon, featuring tons more photographs and exclusive video content.

Now Showing – Cinefex 162

Cinefex 162

One of the realities of the film industry today – something solidly in the “This Never Used to Happen” category – is the phenomenon of shifting movie release dates. In January, Film X is set to be released in March; by February, its release has been changed to May; in April, its release is set for July – of the following year.

This trend of jockeying release dates – whether to afford a film a more advantageous opening or to tinker with a film that isn’t quite ready or any number of other considerations – plays havoc with our editorial schedules. We have an article planned, sometimes even written, and then, at the last minute, the release date changes and our article must be postponed for publication in a later issue.

That is what happened with Cinefex 162, and we were suddenly left with an Alita-sized hole in our magazine!

Fortunately, we still have a few tricks up our sleeves, and a few treasures in our old file cabinets – such as an interview that Cinefex founder Don Shay conducted with Richard Fleischer, the director of 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, back in 1977, as part of his research for a never-realized book project.

That interview, never before published, is a treasure, indeed, as the now late Fleischer recalled the making of that iconic film 23 years prior as if it had just wrapped. We present it to you in our issue 162, along with our cover story on the making of Aquaman, Joe Fordham’s coverage of Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald, and Graham Edwards’ Welcome to Marwen story – supported by an in-depth Q&A with director Robert Zemeckis.

It’s a terrific issue – and you can look for Alita in February!

Cinefex 162 is on newsstands now, and available to order at our online store. If you’re a subscriber, your copy is already splashing its way to your mailbox. And don’t forget our iPad edition, out soon, featuring tons more photographs and exclusive video content.

Songs for the Unsung

16th Annual VES AwardsOstriches, apes, dragons and a Land of the Dead tour guide took top honors at last night’s 16th Annual Visual Effects Society awards presentation. I was lucky enough to be sitting at the Game of Thrones table, where there were big grins and much shaking of hands as the HBO series won recognition in several categories, including the granddaddy Outstanding Visual Effects in a Photoreal Episode. Its feature film corollary, Outstanding Visual Effects in a Photoreal Feature, went to War for the Planet of the Apes, whose visual effects supervisor, Joe Letteri, also won the prestigious Georges Méliès Award for his body of work, which goes back to 1993’s Jurassic Park. Samsung’s ‘Ostrich – Do What You Can’t’ ad also won kudos, as did Pixar’s animated feature, Coco.

I was having too much fun reconnecting with old friends in the business to take copious notes, but here are a few of my off-the-top-of-my head recollections of the evening’s highlights:

Host Patton Oswalt kept the very large crowd in the Beverly Hilton Hotel laughing with a series of to-be-expected nerd jokes. He also lambasted the 1970s and 1980s musical selections that accompanied recipients on and off the stage – but the elder statesmen at my table were grooving to it. (Game of Thrones visual effects supervisor Joe Bauer enthused, “I want the soundtrack to this awards ceremony!”)

Jon Favreau’s speech as this year’s recipient of the VES’s Lifetime Achievement Award was heartfelt. The actor/writer/director seemed genuinely moved by the honor, and he noted what, to him, seemed an irony: he was receiving an award for the privilege of having learned so much from so many of the people in the room. A particularly poignant moment in his speech, for me, was his mention of someone who was not in the room, and to whom he owed so much – the late Stan Winston. As someone who knew Stan for many years and was entrusted to write the definitive book on his long career, The Winston Effect, I am always happy when Stan is remembered.

Cinefex editor-in-chief Jody Duncan with "Game of Thrones" visual effects supervisor Joe Bauer at the 16th Annual VES Awards.

Cinefex editor-in-chief Jody Duncan with “Game of Thrones” visual effects supervisor Joe Bauer at the 16th Annual VES Awards.

A filmed tribute to Joe Letteri included congratulations and remarks by James Cameron, Peter Jackson and Steven Spielberg, all of whom showered the venerated visual effects supervisor with praise for his role in bringing films such as Avatar, The BFG, Jurassic Park and the Lord of the Rings trilogy to the screen.

Presenter Gabriel ‘Fluffy’ Iglesias, looking considerably less fluffy than he used to, impressed me. He was given the task of presenting one of the evening’s more technical awards, that for best simulations, but he had obviously taken the trouble of learning just what a simulation is. He could have just read off the teleprompter, but he went the extra mile to understand just what was being honored, and I don’t know how many celebrities would do that.

The night’s two top awards were presented by surprise guest Mark Hamill, who received a standing ovation from a crowd to whom Star Wars means so very much. Hamill was charming and self-deprecating, noting the recently instituted ‘Jedi Pension Plan,’ no doubt a reference to the recent series of Star Wars films.

Patton Oswalt said goodnight to the crowd, instructing the men to get out of their tuxes and back into their usual cargo shorts. (Patton must have visited a VFX company or two in his time, because cargo shorts are, indeed, the preferred uniform item.)

That was the evening – wish you all could have been there!